2015.05.05【英译中】简明科技知识问答手册——物理和化学(1)

yangf2014 (不灭孽蜥) 译译生辉
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发表于:2015-05-05 10:44 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

PHYSICS AND CHEMISITRY

物理和化学

ENERGY,MOTION,FORCE,AND HEAT

能量,运动,力和热量

see also:Energy

参见:能量

How is “absoluted zero”defined?

“绝对零度”是如何定义的?

       Absolute zero is the theoretical temperature at which all substances have zero thermal energy.Oringinally conceived as the temperature at which an ideal gas at constant pressure would contract to zero volume,absolute zero is of great significance in thermodynamics and is used as the fixed point for absolute temperature scales.Absolute zero is equivalent to 0 K,-459.67F,or -273.15℃.

       绝对零度是指理论上所有物质内能为零时所处的温度。绝对零度最初的构想来源于将理想气体在不断增加的压力下体积压缩到零时的温度,绝对零度对热力学有很重要的意义,并且用于衡量绝对温度的标准。绝对零度指0K,-495.67F或者-273.15℃。

       The velocity of a substance`s molecules determines its temperature; the faster the molecules move,the more volume they require,and the higher the temperature becomes.The lowest actual temperature ever reached was two-billionth of a degree above absolute zero(2X10^-9K) by a team at the Low Temperature Laboratory in the Helsinki University of Techology,Finland,in October,1989.

       物质分子的运动速率决定了其温度,分子运动得越快,其需要的能量越大,因此温度就更高。据1989年10月在芬兰赫尔辛基大学的技术小组提供的数据,最低的真实温度,在百万分之二开尔文,也永远不会到达绝对零度。

Does hot water freeze faster than cold?

热水别冷水结冰快吗?

       A bucket of hot water will not freeze faster than a bucket of cold water.However,a bucket of water that has been heated or boiled,then allowed to cool to the same temperature as the bucket of cold water,may freeze faster.Heating or boiling drives out some of the air bubbles in water;because air bubbles cut down thermal conductivity,they can inhibit freezing.For the same reason,previously heated water forms denser ice than unheated water,which is why hot-water pipes tend to burst before cold-water pipes.

       一桶热水不会比一桶冷水更快结冰。但是,一桶已经加热或是煮沸的水,然后让其冷却到和另一桶冷水相同的温度,可能会结冰的更快。加热或是煮沸会让水中出现一些气泡,因为气泡会降低热量的传递,因此能阻止结冰。同理,提前加热的水结冰比未加热的水要厚,这也是为什么热水管比冷水管容易炸裂了。

 What is superconductivity?

什么是超导[电]性?

       Superconductivity is a condition in which many metals,alloys,organic compounds,and ceramics conduct electricity without resistance,usually at low temperatures.Heinke Kamerlingh Omnes,a Dutch physicist,discovered superconductivity in 1911,but it was not until 1972 that the modern theory regarding the phenomenon was developed by three American physicists——John Bardeen,Leon N. Cooper,and John Robert Schrieffer.Known as the BCS theory after the three scientists,it postulates that superconductivity occurs in certain materials because the electrons in them,rather than remaining free to collide with imperfections and scatter,form pairs that can flow easily around imperfections and do not lose their energy.A variey of uses have been proposed for this phenomenon,including switching devices that measure extremely small magnetic fields for medical diagnosis; and the means to develop powerful superconducing magnets used to build particle accelerators.

       超导性是指许多金属,合金,有机混合物,陶瓷电器在低温时通常电阻为零时的特性。荷兰物理学家XXX,在1911年发现了超导性,但是直到1972年,经过三位美国物理学家——约翰·巴丁,里昂·N·库伯,约翰·罗伯特·施里弗的研究,这一现象才并入现代理论中。这三位科学家建立的BCS理论假定超导性存在某些特定的物质上,因为电子束缚在其中而不是像其它电子那样因为能量不足和传播而相互碰撞,从而形成不易丢失的电子流。基于这一发现,产生了多种用途,包括开关器件,测量非常小的磁域医疗诊断;并发展强大的超导磁体用于建造粒子加速器。

分类: 英语
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