词汇(3)

sgn1982 (很高兴见到你) 核心会员
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发表于:2015-05-14 16:48 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

词汇(3)& Oxford Comma

2015-04-29 赵像鸡 

【正文】



aggrandize

v. to make larger or greater 扩大;增多;提高

One of the concerns of the framers of the U.S. Constitution was that one branch of government would try to aggrandize itself at the expense of the others.

当初美国宪法的缔造者们的担忧之一是政府的某一分支会以牺牲其他分支的代价来壮大自己。


aggregate

adj. amounting to a whole; total 合计的,累计的;全部的

n. collective mass or sum 集合体

v. to collect into a massz 累计;积累T

The aggregate wealth of a country includes private as well as public resourses.

一个国家的全部财富包括私人的和公共的资源和财产。

Portals are Web sites designed to aggregate information and are used as a starting point on the Web.

门户网站是为收集信息而设计的网站,通常被用作上网畅游的起点。


alacrity

n.

1 cheerful willingness;eagerness 欣然同意,乐意;渴望

2 speed 轻快

The football coach was pleased to see the team get to work on the task of improving its tackling skills with alacrity.

橄榄球教练很高兴看到他的队员们欣然地去改进擒抱技术。


alchemy

n.

1 a medieval chemical philosophy based on changing metal into gold 炼金术(中世纪时的一种化学哲学,其根本目标是将金属变成黄金);

2 a seemingly magical power or process of transmutation 魔力;神秘变化

Alchemy was the forerunner of the modern science of chemistry.

炼金术是现代化学的前身。

None of their friends could understand the mysterious alchemy that caused two people as different from one another as Rob and Barbara to fall in love.

他们的朋友中没人能够理解是什么魔力使R和B这样截然不同的两个人坠入爱河。


alchemy:

Modern scientists believe alchemy was not a true science since there's no evidence that anyone succeeded in turning a base metal into gold.

炼金术:现代科学家认为炼金术并不是一门真正的科学,因为没有证据证明曾有人成功地把贱金属变成金子。然后有趣的是,现代科学的chemistry(化学)一词却直接来源于alchemy(炼金术)。


allay

v. to lessen;ease;soothe 减弱;安慰,使安静

Improvements in antivirus software have allayed many people's fears of having their computers "infected" with malicious software.

杀毒软件的改进减轻了不少人对自己的电脑受恶意软件攻击的担心。


alleviate

v. to relieve; improve partially 舒缓,减轻;部分改善

According to some commentators, one of the weaknesses of capitalism is that, although it is very efficient at increasing absolute wealth, it is not as successful at alleviating relative poverty; thus, a person living in a slum in America may be reasonably well off by historical standards, but he might percieve himself to be poor compared to members of the bourgeoisie, whom he sees regularly buying luxury goods that he is not able to afford.

据一些评论员分析,资本主义的一个弱点是:尽管它能高效地增加绝对财富,却不能同样成功地减轻相对贫穷。因此,一个住在美国贫民窟的人尽管按照历史标准来看可能相当富裕,但和中产阶级相比,他仍会认为自己很贫困。因为中产阶级经常购买奢侈品,他却担负不起。


bourgeoisie:

the social order dominated by the property-owning class. The term is associated with Marxism, the political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels, but today it is often used disparagingly to suggest materialism and philistinism (an unenlightened and smug attitude toward culture).

中产阶级:由有产阶级占统治地位的社会秩序。这个词经常与由卡尔·马克思和弗雷德里克·恩格斯创立的马克思主义政治经学哲学联系在一起。但现在这个词通常含有贬抑的意味,暗示着物质主义和市侩主义(对文化无知却自以为是的态度)。

(书童注:查过韦氏大学,AHD,柯林斯高阶,兰登书屋韦氏,都找不到bourgeoisie的贬义用法说明)


alloy

n.

1 a combination 混合物,合成

2 a mixture of two or more metals 合金

Scientists formulate alloys to create properties that are not possessed by natual metals or other substances.

科学家按比例制成合金以创造出自然金属或其他物质不具备的特性。


allure

n. the power to entice by charm 吸引力;迷惑

v. to entice by charm 吸引,引诱

Political groups in the United States often lobby Congress to use the allure of America's vast market as an incentive for countries to pursue policies in accordance with American policies.

美国的政治团体经常游说国会用美国巨大的国内市场当作诱饵,诱使他国政府在采取政策时以美国的政策为榜样。


alluring

adj. 迷人的,吸引人的,诱惑的

The idea of a clockwork universe is very alluring to some people because it explains how the universe was created, yet allows human beings to live in it without believing in supernatural intervention.

机械式宇宙论对很多人来说极具吸引力,因为它既解释了宇宙的形成,又允许人类不必相信超自然干预也能生活在宇宙之中。


lobby:

a group whose members share certain goals and work to bring about the passage, modification and defeat of laws that affect these goals

游说团体:

为了某些共同目标而一起工作的团体,他们通常会影响法律的制定和修正,或废除那些影响他们目标实现的法律。


clockwork universe:

a theory of the origin of the universe that compares the universe to a mechanical clock created by God. According to this theory, once created, the universe continues to run according to the laws of nature and does not require further Divine intervention. This idea was very popular in the Enlightenment, an eighteen-century philosophical movement that emphasized the use of reason to examine accepted beliefs and traditions.

机械式宇宙论:一种解释宇宙起源的理论,它把宇宙比作一个上帝创造的机械式钟表。该理论认为,宇宙一旦被创造出来,就将继续根据自然法则运转而无需上帝的进一步干预。该理论在启蒙运动时期非常流行。启蒙运动是发生于18世纪的一场哲学运动,强调用理性去重新审视公认的信念或传统。


amalgamate

v. to combine into a unified whole 合并,结合

In early 1999, six municipalities were amalgamated into an enlarged city of Toronto, Canada.

1999年初,6个自治市(译者注:即5个近郊市加多伦多城区)合并成一个扩大了的加拿大多伦多市。


ambiguous

adj. unclear or doubtful in meaning 不清楚的,意义含糊的

The gender of the Mahayana Buddhist deity Avalokitesuara, the god of infinite mercy, is ambiguous in both China and Japan, where the god is sometimes called a goddess.

大乘佛教的神观世音菩萨,即大慈大悲观世音,其性别在中国和日本都不明确,有时被视为女神。


Mahayana Buddhist:

one of the three major traditions of Buddhism. It regards the historical Buddha as a manifestation of the celestial Buddha.

大乘佛教:佛教三大宗派之一,它认为现世的佛是传说中的佛的显灵。





【闲聊】


今天咱们来聊聊Oxford Comma和它带来的一系列误会。


什么叫Oxford Comma呢,比如上周词汇(2)的节目中有这么一个例句:

“Gothic:a style of architecture that was very popular in the late Middle Ages characterized by suck features as pointed arches,soaring spaces【,】and light.”

一连串同性质的概念罗列,最后两个之间往往用一些连词相连,比如and/or/besides,而这些连词之前的那个逗号就叫做Oxford Comma。


有些人认为这个逗号是必要的,

Common arguments for consistent use of the serial comma:

  1. Use of the comma is consistent with conventional practice.

  2. It matches the spoken cadence of sentences better.

  3. It can resolve ambiguity (see examples below).

  4. Its use is consistent with other means of separating items in a list (for example, when semicolons are used to separate items, a semicolon is consistently included before the last item even when and or or is present).

  5. Its omission can suggest a stronger connection between the last two items in a series than actually exists.


而有些人认为这个逗号是没必要保留的,

Common arguments against consistent use of the serial comma:

  1. Use of the comma is inconsistent with conventional practice.

  2. The comma may introduce ambiguity (see examples below).

  3. It is redundant in a simple list because the and or the or is often meant to serve (by itself) to mark the logical separation between the final two items, unless the final two items are not truly separate items but are two parts of a compound single item.

  4. Where space is at a premium, the comma adds unnecessary bulk to the text.


关于歧义:


(1)

有时候不用这个逗号,会产生歧义比如:

To my friends,Ada and Leon.

既可以理解为四个人,两个朋友,加A和L;也可以理解为两个人,A和L,他们是我朋友。

这种情况下加上逗号或者颠倒语序都可以避免歧义.

(2)

有时候用了这个逗号,反而会产生歧义比如:

To my sister,Ada,and Leon.

既可以理解为两个人,一个是我姐姐A,一个是L;也可以理解为3个人,姐姐和A和L。

这种情况下去掉逗号,可以避免歧义。

(3)

直到The Times泰晤士报 在一篇关于演员、导演兼编剧Peter Ustinov的纪录片的评论文章中 写出了这样一个加不加逗号都会产生歧义的句子:

highlights of his global tour include encounters with Nelson Mandela, an 800-year-old demigod and a dildo collector.

如果不加Oxford Comma,曼德拉和“an 800-year-old demigod and a dildo collector”可以作同位语理解;

如果加了Oxford Comma,曼德拉也可以和“an 800-year-old demigod”作同位语理解。

真是让人挠头的Comma。


综上,写作中如何避免歧义,也许并没有什么通用的解决方案,而是需要你自己在练习中逐渐摸索和积累。具体到Oxford Comma的使用,更多是要考察有没有可能构成同位语的歧义。


小小彩蛋,贴个笑话——



【引用来源】

(1)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_comma

(2)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Ustinov

(3)https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-most-beautiful-word-in-the-English-language-and-why





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