ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS (3)

sgn1982 (很高兴见到你) 核心会员
21 1 3
发表于:2015-05-15 02:29 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS (3)

2015-05-14 赵负能量携带者 

也觉得海绵宝宝是个相当不错的话题,可惜我一集都没看过。



【正文】

The Sponge and Panning for Gold: Alternative Thinking Styles

One approach to thinking is similar to the way in which a sponge reacts to water: by absorbing. This commonly used approach has some clear advantages. First, the more information you absorb about the world, the more capable you are of understanding its complexities. Knowledge you have acquired provides a foundation for more complicated thinking later.

A second advantage of the sponge approach is that it is relatively passive. Rather than requiring strenuous mental effort, it tends to be rather quick and easy, especially when the material is presented in a clear and interesting fashion. The primary mental effort involves concentration and memory.

While absorbing information provides a productive start toward becoming a thoughtful person, the sponge approach has a serious disadvantage: It provides no method for deciding which information and opinions to believe and which to reject. If a reader relied on the sponge approach all the time, he would believe whatever he read last. The idea of being the mental puppet of whomever one happens to encounter is horrible imagery for a person and a community. Decisions become accidents of association, instead of reflective judgments.

We think you would rather choose for yourself what to absorb and what to ignore. To make this choice, you must read with a special attitude—a question-asking attitude. Such a thinking style requires active participation. The writer is trying to speak to you, and you should try to talk back to him, even though he is not present.

We call this interactive approach the panning-for-gold style of thinking. The process of panning for gold provides a model for active readers and listeners as they try to determine the worth of what they read and hear. The task is challenging and sometimes tedious, but the reward can be tremendous. To distinguish the gold from the gravel in a conversation requires you to ask frequent questions and to reflect on the answers.

The sponge approach emphasizes knowledge acquisition; the panning-for-gold approach stresses active interaction with knowledge as it is being acquired. Thus, the two approaches complement each other. To pan for intellectual gold, there must be something in your pan to evaluate. In addition, to evaluate arguments, we must possess knowledge, dependable opinions.

Let us examine more closely how the two approaches lead to different behavior. What does the individual who takes the sponge approach do when he reads material? He reads sentences carefully, trying to remember as much as he can. He may underline or highlight key words and sentences. He may take notes summarizing the major topics and major points. He checks his underlining or notes to be sure that he is not forgetting anything important. His mission is to find and understand what the author has to say. He memorizes the reasoning, but doesn't evaluate it.

What does the reader who takes the panning-for-gold approach do? Like the person using the sponge approach, he approaches his reading with the hope that he will acquire new knowledge. There the similarity ends. The panning-for-gold approach requires that the reader asks himself a number of questions designed to uncover the best available decisions or beliefs.

Exhibit 1.1 MENTAL CHECK: Am I Panning for Gold?

/ Did I ask "why" someone wants me to believe something?

/ Did I take notes as I thought about potential problems with what was being said?

/ Did I evaluate what was being said?

/ Did I form my own conclusion about the topic?

The reader who uses the panning-for-gold approach frequently questions why the author makes various claims. He writes notes to himself in the margins indicating problems with the reasoning. He continually interacts with the material. His intent is to critically evaluate the material and formulate personal conclusions based on the evaluation.

上述文字引自本书,感兴趣请购买正版。

(http://book.douban.com/subject/1829747/)



【糙翻】

海绵式与淘金式:两种思维

一种思维方式很像海绵遇到水:吸收。这种方式很常用,也有明显的好处。

首先,你吸收的信息越多,越能够理解这个复杂的世界。你掌握的信息,为复杂深入地理解这个世界提供了基础。

第二,相对来说这是一种被动的思维方式。不需要太多思考,特别是对于那些清晰且有趣的信息,用这种方式很快很简单。只要你集中精神并记牢就行了。

你想明辨是非,然后你吸收了很多信息这不错,但海绵式有个严重的问题:它不能告诉你该相信哪些,以及该拒绝哪些。如果一个读者只采用海绵式思维获取信息,他将相信他最后读到的内容。鹦鹉学舌,对一个人没有好处,对大众也一样。当你需要决断,却只会人云亦云。

我们认为,你宁可自己选择该相信什么。那么,你需要一种特别的态度——一种质疑的态度。这种思维方式需要你积极参与其中。假想作者在对你说话,而你要回应他,虽然这听起来有点傻。

我们把这种互动式的思考叫做淘金式思维。积极主动的读者和听众多采用这种方式,因为他们要判断信息的价值。这种方式殊为不易,但回报也相当可观。面对一段对话,想沙里淘金,你就要经常提问,再根据回答判断。

海绵式侧重信息获取;淘金式,除了重视信息获取,还需要积极互动。想要去糙取精,必须有评估的内容;另外,想要评估一段论证,我们必须先有可靠的知识作为判断标准。

我们来仔细看看,两种思维方式会导致哪些不同的行为。如果一个人秉承海绵式的原则,他会怎么处理一段阅读材料?一定是相当认真逐字逐句,并尽可能记住。可能在书上画他认为理解的重点。也可能对主要的论题和观点做笔记。为了烂熟于胸,他会反复看这些标识或笔记。他要找到并理解作者的观点。他记得住整个推理过程,却不评估这个过程。

采取淘金式思维的人会怎么做?和上一位一样,他想通过阅读来获取新知识。不过他们的方式完全不同。他会不断向自己提问,来获得他认为最好的结论。

问问自己:我算是淘金者吗?

有人想让我相信某件事,我问过原因吗?

当然认为对方谈论的事有潜在的疑点,我记下来了吗?

我认为那段话靠谱吗?

关于某个话题,我有自己的结论吗?

采取淘金式思维的读者,经常质疑作者为什么做出这样那样的断言。当他怀疑某一段论述,会在书边记下疑点。他始终与材料保持互动。目的是批判地评估这段材料,并据此形成自己的结论。


【废话】

作者写书,为了行文的条理顺畅不至失焦,回避了一些枝蔓的话题,我想把我的思考作为补充放在这里:

一个小女孩,妈妈不给她买买裙子,她就机械性地重复妈妈的话,作为一种貌似“听话”,其实是以退为进的反击,这肯定不叫做“海绵式”思维;一个刚毕业的男生,为了能够顺利度过试用期,会非常顺从地做好每一件经理要求他做的事,即便他知道他4小时前已经下班,即便让他为经理遛狗;有个姑娘曾告诉我,某些时候就是很想跟我作对,也不是恨我,只是非常想反驳我说的每一句话每一个观点……

这些跟我们采取的思维方式无关,很多时候我们的策略,更多地反应了我们的情绪和立场,也就是屁股坐在哪一条板凳上。

生活是一头扭曲的纠结嚎叫的喷着火的巨大怪兽,我们没办法回避自己的立场,所以——关于单双号禁行,同一个人在买车前后也许观点会变化;关于退休年龄,公务员和农民工也许有不同的期望;关于商品的价格,买主和商家只能试着达成某种妥协……

在理想的情况下,你不需要超然世外,滴水不漏。你只需要凭着自己的知识经验与判断,坦诚你的理由和结论,代表着那些给你有类似背景与类似判断的人发言,用逻辑的力量去说服尽可能多的人,这对于整个议题,乃至整个社会都意义重大。不要让自己的情绪与欲望左右自己的判断,毕竟它们已经在左右着我们的个人选择(难道还不够吗)。

这就是所谓就事论事,所谓讲道理。面对各种公共议题,严肃的科学研究,这种态度是必须的,因为这些领域是讲求事实真相的。这也是ETS设计GRE,并需要你展现这种能力的最大原因。

现实的情况是,我们会看到媒体不恰当或蓄意地扭曲报道,他们用蒙太奇手法展示那些重新编排过的新闻元素,使之呈现出一种他们喜欢的特别效果,以此来操纵话题;标题党;软文;现在,大家知道“水军”有至少两种解释,一种是三国时代的,一种是互联网时代的;我们越来越对成功学大师们皱眉;对某些鸡汤表示反胃;他们不恰当地类比,迷惑性地利用数据,选择性地呈现和忽略相关事实,别有用心地诉诸权威或诉诸情感……

他们想要说服人们,就这么简单,因为说服了某些人,就会获得支持,会有人堵着论敌的微博骂不停,会有人去爆人家贴吧砸私家车,会起哄式地支持或反对某个化工项目,会掏钱购买最新产品,会一起掩盖某些历史篡改另一些。

可惜他们不就事论事不讲道理,而且,他们这样做是故意的。以后我们会逐一揭穿这些伎俩,如果你足够感兴趣,相信你会逐渐掌握这件拨开真相的工具。

当你开始识字,开始学习平面几何,开始听父母念第一个故事,你就已经是“海绵式”思维的小动物了。现在,相信我你已经吸收了相当多的信息,来一起“淘金”吧。

那啥,你很快就会发现,金子真是tm少得可怜。



最后我得承认,没看过《海绵宝宝》有点遗憾。


【版权声明】

本文系作者原创,个人转载请标明来源,媒体转载请私信联系。




长按二维码,选择

“识别图中二维码”

即可关注


最后编辑于:2015-05-15 03:05
全部回复 (1)

  • 3

    点赞

  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈

    二维码

  • 分享

课程推荐

需要先加入社团哦

编辑标签

最多可添加10个标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存

编辑官方标签

最多可添加10个官方标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存
知道了

复制到我的社团