英语相似词语辨析

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发表于:2014-05-05 22:04 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

第一刊第一部分1.a/an This is a banana.这是香蕉。That's an apple.那是苹果。<辨析> a 用在以辅音音素开头的词前,an 用在以元音音素开头的词前。这里所说的是音素,而不是字母。注意:1) 书写以辅音字母开头,发音以元音音素开头的单词前面用 an .如:an hour 一小时;an honest girl 一个诚实的女孩.辅音字母f,h,l,m,n,r,s,x 单独使用时 因它们的发音都分别以元音开头 其前面用 an 。 如:an"l",一个"l"。 2)书写以元音字母开头 发音以辅音音素开头的单词前面用 a 。如:a useful bood 一本有用的书。

2.a/one

There is a glass on the table.桌上有只玻璃杯。

There is one glass on the table.桌上有一只玻璃杯。

<辨析> 不定冠词 a 和数词 one 都可以修饰单数可数名词,表示“一”或“一个”。a 着重指类别,表示同类事物中的任何一个,有泛指的意义,不一定要译出。one着重指数量,是与two,three等数词相对而言的。试比较:

I have a pen.(意即我有的是笔,不是其它什么东西。)

I have one pen.(意即我有一枝笔,不是两枝,三枝。)

a 和 one 还有如下异同:

1)表示“每一”含义时,用 a 不用 one 。如:

We have five English classes a week.我们每周上五节英语课。

I drink tea three times a day.我一天喝三次茶。

2)表示编号时,用 one 不用 a 。如:

Are you in Grade One? 你在一年级吗?

3)在“一”和其它数量词接连出现时,两者可互换,但表示强调对比时,用 one 不用 a 。如:

There is a (或one)pencil and two rubbers in the pencil-box. 铅笔盒里有一枝铅笔和两块橡皮。

I have one bike,but he has two.我有一辆自行车,但他有两辆。(one不可改成a)

4)用在day,week,month,year,summer等词前或用在日期或月份之前,表示发生某事的特定时间时,用 one 不用 a 。如:

One day,Mr Ampere went out for a walk in the steet.一天,安培先生到街上去散步。

3.who/what

Who is she? 她是谁?

What is she? 她是干什么的?

<辨析> who 用于问某人的姓名或某人与他人的关系。what 用于问某人的身份或职业。对上述第一句的回答应是She is Jane.或 She is my sister.。对第二句的回答应是She is a teache(nurse...)。

4.little/small

My little brother's name is Jack.我小弟弟名叫杰克。

My room is small.我的房间小。

<辨析> little 和 small 均指“小”,两者都可修饰人和事物。little 往往含有“小得可怜”、“小得可爱”等意思,常常带有感情色彩,与 big 和 great 相对;small指尺寸、面积上的小,没有感情色彩,与 large 相对。试比较:

He is a little boy.他是一个(可爱的)小男孩。

He is a small boy.他是一个小个子男孩。

注意:

1)small 可用作表语,little作表语用的情况较少。如:

The apple is small.这个苹果小。(不宜用little)

2)small 作“小”解时,其比较级、最高级是 smaller,smallest。little 作“小”解时,一般没有比较等级。

5.cup/glass

These are cups.

Those are glasses.

<辨析> cup 和 glass 都可作“杯”解。cup 指的是用玻璃以外的原料制成的杯子,如用陶瓷等制成的带把的小茶杯,常常有托盘,用于喝茶、牛奶、咖啡或可可等。glass 指用玻璃制成的杯子,用于喝水、饮酒等。

6.desk/table The desks are here. 课桌在这。 The tables are there. 餐桌在那。 <辨析> 两者都可作“桌子”解。desk 指供读书、写字、办公用的桌子,一般带抽屉;table 侧重于供吃饭、喝茶、游戏或其它用途的桌子、通常没有抽屉。

7.family/house/home There are four people in my family.我家有四口人。 There are four rooms in my house.我家有四个房间。 My home is in Shanghai.我爱在上海。 <辨析> 这三个词都可以作“家”解。family 指由父母子女所组成的家庭,是集体名词,既可把它看成单数,也可把它看成复数,需根据具体情况而定,如: My family is a large one.我家是个大家庭。 My family are all watching TV,我们家的人都在看电视。 house 指供一家人住的房子,侧重于具体的建筑物。如: There are many new houses in our village.我们村里有许多新房子。 home 指一个人出生和居住的地方。如: His home is near the school.他的家就在学校附近。注意:home 可作副词用。“咱们回家吧”这句话需说“Let's go home.”不可说“ Let's go to home. ”

8.class/lesson Classes begin at eight.八点开始上课。 We have two lessons in the afternoon.我们下午有两节课。 <辨析> 两者都可作“(一节)课”解。可以互换,如上述第二句中的 lessons 可改成 classes 。但很少说 Lessons begin at eight. class 和 lesson 在初中教材中还有其它含义,因此二者通常是不能互换使用的。如: 1)class 可以作“课堂”,“班级”,“阶级”解,但 lesson 不可。 She works very hard in class.她在课堂上学习很努力。 There are forty-six students in our class.我们班有46个同学。 2)lesson 可以作“功课”,“科目”,“(课本中的)一课”,“教训”解,但 class 不可。 They are doing their lessons.他们正在做功课。 We study Chinese,maths,English and other lessons.我们学汉语、数学、英语和别的学科。 Lesson Two is very easy.第二课很容量。

9.in front of/in the front of There is a desk in front of the blackboard.黑板前面有一张课桌。 I am sitting in the front of the meeting-room.我坐在会议室的前部。 <辨析> 这两个词组只有一“the”之差。in front of 表示“在......之前面”,即处在某个地方范围外的前边,in the front of 表示“在......的前部”,即还处在某个地方的范围之内。试比较: The girl is standing in front of the bus.这个女孩站在公共汽车前面。(在车外) The girl is ttanding in the front of the bux.这个女孩站在公共汽车前部。(在车内)

10.let us/let's Let us do the work.这活让我们做吧。 Let's the work.咱们做这活吧。 <辨析> let us...与 let's...略有区别,前者中和 us 有时包括对方,有时不包括对方,在包括对方时可写作 let's;后者肯定包括对方。试译:请把你的名字告诉我们。误:Let's know your name. 正:Let us konw your name. 注意:以 let's 开头的表示建议的祈使句,若有附加问句,则用“shall we?”;以 let us 开头的表示请求的祈使句,附加问句用“will you?”。两者不可混淆

11.some/any There are some chicks under the tree.树底下有几只小鸡。 There are not any books on the desk.桌子上没有书。 <辨析> some 和 any 都是不定代词,可用作名词或形容词,常与不可能性数名词或可数名词复数连用,基本意思是“一些“;some 一般用在肯定句中,any 主要用在疑问句否定句和条件句中。如: Have you any paper?你有纸吗? If you have any ink,please give me some.假如你有墨水,请给我一些。注意: 1)some 也可用于表示请示的疑问句中。如: Will you give me some chalk?请你给我一点粉笔好吗? 2)any 也可用于肯定句,这时它的意思是“任何”,而不是“一些”。如: Any man knows that.任何人都知道那件事

第二部分 12.have/there be We have a TV set.我们有台电视机。 There is a TV set on the table.桌子上有台电视机。 <辨析> have 与 there be 都可作“有”解。have 用来表示各种关系的“所有”,身上“具有(说明人物的外观)”和整体与局部的“含有”。如: I have a good friend.我有一位好朋友。 Mary has big eyes.玛丽长着大大的眼睛。 Has the book a red cover?这本书有红色封面的吗? there be 表示存在的关系,是“在什么地方或时间存在有......”的意思,经常跟一个地点状语或时间状语连用。如: There are two bikes under the tree.树下有两辆自行车。 A year has twelve months.一年有十二个月。(=There are twelve months in a year.) 注意:在 there be 结构中,如果主语不止一个,谓语动词往往和与之最近的主语在数上保持一致。: There is a pen,two pencils and four books on the desk.桌子上有一枝钢笔,两枝铅笔和四本书。 There are two maps and a picture on the wall.墙上有两张地图和一张画。

13.thank/thanks Thanks for telling me about it.谢谢你告诉了我这件事。 Thank you for showing me the way.谢谢你给我指路。 <辨析> thank 既可作名词又可作动词。作名词时,只能用复数形式,不能作单数形式,可以说thanks a lot,many thanks 或 a thousand thanks,不可说 a thank;作动词时是及物动词,表示“向......表示感谢”,通常用于 thank+sb.+for+sth.(或doing sth.)结构。试译: 1)谢谢你的指点。误:Thank your advice. 正:Thank you for your advice. 2)谢谢你和我们一起照相。误:Thank you to take pictures with us. 正:Thank you for taking pictures with us.

14.and/or(1) I have pen and pencil.我有钢笔和铅笔。 It has no feet or legs.它没有脚和腿。 <辨析> 并列连词 and or 都可作解,但用法不一样。在肯定陈述句中,并列成分的列举一般用 and 连接;在否定陈述句中,并列成分的列举习惯上不用 and 而用 or 连接。注意:It has no eyes and no ears 中的 and 不可改成 or,因为 and no ears and it has no ears 的省略说法,即 no A or B=no A and no B

15.it's/its What's that? It's a car.那是什么?那是不汽车。 Here is my dog.Its name is Tom.这是我的狗,名叫汤姆。 <辨析> it's 是 it is 的简略式。its 意为“它的”,是形容词性物主代词,在 it 之后没有“,”,两者是意义上和用法上均不同,不能混淆。注意:在对一般疑问句作简略回答时,it is 不能简略为 it's。试译:这是轮船吗?是的,它是。 误:Is this a ship? Yes,it's. 正:Is this a ship? Yes,it is.

16.one\ones\one's Mary has a red pencil and Jane has a blue one.玛丽有一枝红铅笔,珍妮有一枝蓝的。 Which picture-books are theirs?The ones on the desk are theirs.哪些图画书是全他们的?桌子的图画书是他们的。 One must do one's duty.人人必须尽责。 <辨析> one 可用作不定代词,代替前面指到的可数名词,以免重复。ones 是 one 和复数形式,而 one's 是 one 的所有格形式。注意: 1)one 不能代替不可数名词。如:误:The grey cloth is better than the green one. 正:The grey cloth is better than the green(colth). 2)所有格名词或物主代词,不定冠词或基数词不可以直接与 one(s) 连用。如:误:Your bike is old,but my one is still new. 正:Your bike is old,but mime is still new. 但 one(s) 前如有形容词修饰时,刚可以。如: Which of my pens do you like best?I like your red one.你最喜欢我的哪枝钢笔?我喜欢你那枝红钢笔。

17.many/much/a lot of I have many friends.我有许多朋友。 He has much breaad.他有许多面包。 There are a lot of people in the street.街上有许多人。 <辨析> 这三个词都可作“许多”解。many 修饰可数名词,much 修饰不可数名词,a lot of 修饰可数名词和不可数名词。注意:a lot of 通常用于肯定句中,否定句及疑问句中通常用 many 或 much。如: She has a lot of books;but she has not many bookshelves.她有许多书,但没有许多书架。

18.no/not A clock has no mouth.时钟没有嘴。 He has not any picture-books.他没有图画书。 <辨析> no 可用作形容词,也可用作副词;not 只可作副词。no 作形容词时,直接用于名词前。如果名词前已有 a,the,his,much,any 等词时,一般用 not。试译:杯子里没有茶。误:There is no any tea in the cup. 正:There is not any tea in the cup. 正:There is no tea in the cup. 注意:no 后面的名词可用单数形式,也可以用复数形式。如: I have no radio(s).我没有收音机。但有时应依实际情况而定。如: That dog has on tail.(因为狗只有一条尾巴,当然有单数。)

19.both/all Wang Lin and Li Ping both stood up.王林和李平都站了起来。 My brothers and I are all at school.我的兄弟和我都在上学。 <辨析> both 表示“两者全都”,作主语时当复数用。all 表示“三者或三者以上全都”。注意:both 和 all 在句中作主语同位语时,通常放在行为动词前或 be 动词之后。如: They all agreed with you.他们都同意你的意见。

20.all/all of All the animals are good friends.所有的动物都是好朋友。 All of us are very busy.我们大家都很忙。 <辨析> 一般来说,all 和 all of 都可以放在名词之前,但是,如果名词前没有冠词、名(代)词所有格或其它限定词修饰,则不能用 all of。如: All(of) my friends are working hard.我的朋友都在努力工作。 All(of) the food is good to eat.所有的食品都好吃。 All children like watching TV.所有的孩子都喜欢看电视。(不能说 All of children...) all of 后还可跟人称代词宾语(us,you,them),all则不能。试译:他们都是少先队员。误:All them are Young Pioneers. 正:All of them are Young Pioneers.

21.go/walk Don't go yet.且别走。 Don't walk in the tomato field.别在西红柿地里走。 <辨析> 两者都是不及物动词,含有“走”的意思。go 表示离去,不一定指步行走路,往往与带介词 to 的地点状语或带 by 的方式状语连用,其主语可以是人、动物或非生物。如: People in the cities often go and help them.城里人经常去帮助他们。 He will go to Beijing by plane.他将乘飞机去北京。 My watch won't go.我的表不走了。 walk 指步行或无目的的散步,其主语通常是人。如: We are going to walk.我们将走着去。 They are walking along the street.他们沿着大街散步。表示步行“到一定地点去”时,两者可换用。如: He walkde(或went)to the window.他向窗口走去。

22.quite/very I quite like her.我很喜欢她。 He is very busy.他很忙。 <辨析> quite 是程度副词,可修饰副词、形容词和动词,跟表示“程度的”词连用时,有“相当”、“非常”的意思。跟“没有程度差距的”词连用时,作“完全”解。如: I feel quite well.我觉得身体很不错。 I'm quite tired.我相当累了。 We are not quite ready.我们还没有完全准备好。 very 也是程度副词,意为“很”,“非常”。可用于修饰形容词或副词,但不可直接修饰动词。如: This factory is very large.这家工厂很大。 He runs very fast.他跑得很快。有时两都可以通用,在份量上 very 比 quite 重。试比较: His French is quite good.(=not bad)他的法语很不错。 His French is very good.(=excellent)他的法语好极了。注意:quite 和 very 与不定冠词连用时的位置: He is quite a clever boy. Hi is a very clever boy. He is very a clever boy.(误) quite 也可放在 a(n) 后面,但只有当名词前有形容词时才可能。如可以说 a quite clever boy,而不能说 a quite boy.

23.another/the other There is another seat.还有一个座位。 I have two brothers.One is Jack ,the other Peter.我有两个兄弟。一个是杰克,另一个是彼得。 <辨析> 两者都可以表示“另一人”的意思。anothr 泛指不定数目的“另一个”,可作代词或形容词用,一般代替或修饰单数可数名词,前面不用冠词。如: Please give me another apple.请再给我一个苹果。 the other 指已知的两个事物或人中的“另一个”,常与 one 连用。如: He has a book in one hand,and a pencil in the other.他一只手拿书,一只手拿笔。 the other 还可用作定语,修饰复数名词,表示另一方中的“全部其余的”如。 Where are the other comrades?其他同志在哪里?

24.o'clock/hour His sister gets up at seven o'clock in the morning.他妹妹早晨七点起床。 Lunch hour is over.午餐时间过了。 <辨析> o'clock 意为“......点钟”,指时钟上的几点钟,如两点钟、三点钟等。hour 意为“小时”,指一天的二十四分之一,“时刻”,“时间”。注意:o'clock 只用于整钟点数,若表示几点几分,则要省去 o'clock 。试译:他父亲七点十分上班。误:His father goes to work at ten past seven o'clock. 正:His father goes to work at ten past seven.

25.good/well You are good students.你们是好学生。 Tom draws well.汤姆画得好。 <辨析> 两者都可以表示“好”,但词类归属不同。good 是形容词,用作定语或表语。well 是副词,用于修饰动词。well 也可用作形容词(只用作表语),意思是“(身体)好”。如: He is not feeling well today.今天他感觉不舒服。

26.others/the others Tom likes helping others.汤姆喜欢帮助别人。 Twenty students in the class are boys,the others are girls.这个班二十人是男同学,其余的是女同学。 <辨析> others 泛指“其他(它)的人或物”,the others 特指“其余的人”或“其余的东西”。others 常和 some 对比使用,这时 others 意为“有些”,不作“其他(它)”解。如: Some are carrying water,others are watering the trees.有些人在挑水,有些人在浇树。

27.listen(to)/hear You are listening to me.你在听我说话。 I'm very glad to hear the news.我很高兴听到这个消息。 <辨析> listen 和 hear都有“听”的意思。listen 一般是不及物动词,常跟介词 to 连用,后接宾语,表示专心致志地听着,是个有意识的动作。hear 是及物动词,意为“听见”,“听到”,是个无意识的动作。hear 是 listen 这一动作的结果。如: We listenedbut could hear nothing.我们仔细听着,可是什么也听不见。

28.look(at)/see What are you looking at?你在看什么? I see some animals over there.我看见那边有一些动物。 <辨析> look 和 see 都有“看”的意思。look 一般是不及物动词,后跟介词 at 构成短语动词才能及物,表示有意识的看,强调看的动作。see 是及物动词,是“有视力,有能力看见”的意思,强调看的结果。如“ We looked but saw nothing.我们看了,但什么也没看见。 see还可以表示“会见”,“访问”,“观看”,“参观”等意思。如: See you again.再见。 I saw an exhibition this morning.今天上午我参观了一个展览会。 see 与 look 都可用于祈使句中,表示“瞧”。如: Sss(或Look),here he come.瞧,他来了。

29.after/behind Summer comes after spring.春天过后,夏天来了。 There is a bike behind the tree.树后面有一辆自行车。 <辨析>两者在此都是介词,after表示“在......之后"。指动态的先后,即次序的先后。behind指静态的先后,即位置的前后。如: After you,sir!先生,你先走。(表示顺序) The village is behind the holl.村庄就在山的背后。(表示位置) after还可用来指时间的先后顺序,表示在一点或一段时间之后。如: He goes to school after breaKfast.他早饭后上学。 He came back after three days.他在三天后回来了。以上两句不可用behind代替after。

30.high/tall Huangshan is a very high mountain.黄山是一座非常高的山。 Jack is a tall boy.杰克是个高个子男孩。 <辨析>两者都有“高”的意思。high 一般表示物体的高度,它的反义词是 low。如: The Pyramid is about 144 metres high.这座金字塔约有144米高。 Can you see the high wall?你能看见那堵高墙吗? high 还可以作比喻用,有“高度的”,“高级的”,“高等的”意思,这时不宜用 tall 取代。如:high speed高速度,high price 高价,high fever 高烧。 tall 指身材的高度,一般用于人和动物。它的反义词是 short。如: Li Ping is taller than Wei Fang.李平比魏芳个子高。(不能用 higher) tall 与 high 都可用来指"tree","building","tower"等的高度,但指"mountain"时,只能用 high。

31.in bed /in(on)teh bed Don't read in bed.别躺上床上看书。 There are some books on the bed.床上有几本书。 <辨析>这两个短语都有“在床上”的意思,但用法不同。in bed 是习语,表示“躺上床上”,“卧病在床”,短语中的 bed 不指具体的床,故前面不用冠词,in 也不可改成 on。in(on)the bed 表示在“某张床上”,还可以 in(on) that(the same) bed 或 in(on) one's bed。如: On her bed she saw a new red box.她在床上看见一个新的红盒子。

32.what time/when What time is it?现在是什么时间了? When do you usually do your lessons?你通常什么时候做功课? <辨析>what time 与 when 都可以表示“”什么时候。前者所表示的时间比较精确,指“几点钟”,“几时几分”。后者所表示的时间范围较广,但有时也可指“几点钟”,“几时几分”,用来代替 what time。如: What time(When) does your mother go to work?She goes to work at seven.你母亲什么时候上班?她七点上班。 When will he come back?He'll come back tomorrow.他什么时候回来?他明天回来。

33.go to bed/go to sleep He goes to bed at about half past nine every day.他每天大约九点半钟睡觉。 The cock smiles and goes to sleep high up in the tree.公鸡微微一笑,便在树上睡着了。 <辨析>go to bed 意为“就寝”,指“上床睡觉”这个动作,go to sleep意为“睡着”,“入睡”,指“进入梦乡“

第三部分 34.always/usually/often/sometimes Li Hong's parents always go to work early.李红的父母总是很早上班。 Mary usually gets up at six o'clock.玛丽通常六点钟起床。 Li Ping often does his lessons in the afternoon.李平经常在下午做功课。 Sometimes Tom goes to the cinema with his friends.有时候汤姆同他的朋友去看电影。 <辨析>这四个词都是频度副词。always 是频度最大的词,表示动作重复,状态继续,中间没有间断,常译作“总是”。其反义词是never。它与进行时态连用时,常译作“老是”,带有厌烦,不满等感情色彩。如: He is always asking questiion.他老是发问。 它与完成时态连用时,表示“一向”,“始终”。如: I‘ve always been interested in such things.我始终对这样的事情感兴趣。 usually 意为“通常”,含有在一般情况下做某事很少有例外的意思,频度仅次于always。 often 意为“经常”,不如usually 那么频繁,表示动作重复,中间有间断。 sometimes 意为“有时”,是这四个副词中频度最低的词。

35.big/large/great This elephant is very big.这只象非常大。 China is a large and beautiful country.中国是个大而美美丽的国家。 The Chinese peopie are a great people.中华民族是伟大的民族。 <辩析>这三个形容词都可以表示“大”。big 和 large 所指的一般属于具体事物,big 侧重于表示一个物体的块头、重量,含有庞大、笨重的意思,其反义词是 little。large 侧重表示一个物体的宽度和数量,有广阔和众多的含义,其反义词是 small。在现代口语中两者赏可互换,big 较为口语化,large 比较正式。如: This is a big(或 large)room.这是一间大房子。 big 还可以作“长大了的”解,large 没有这个意思。如: She is big enough to ride a bike.她长大了,足可以骑自行车了。 great 常常表示“伟大的”,可修饰具体的人或物,带有一定的感情色彩。如: We are going to visit the Great Hall of the People.我们打算参观人民大会堂。 great 有时可表达说话人的喜悦、赞扬等感情。如: "How do you like my coat?"------"Great!"“你觉得我这件怎么样?”------“好极了!”

36.borrow/lend May I borrow your pen?我可以借你的钢笔用吗? Can you lend me your pen?你把钢笔借给我好吗? <辨析>这两个动词都有“借”的意思。borrow 指向别人借东西(借入)。lend 指把东西借给别人(借出),即:borrow something from somebody or somewhere。如: Do you often borrow books from the library?你经常从图书馆借书吗?表示“把某物借给某人”,用 lend something to somebody。如: You mustn't lend it to others.你一定不要把它借给别人。

37.very/very mush She is very well.她唱得非常好。 I like English very mush.我非常喜欢英语。 <辨析>两者都可以解作非常very 通常修饰形容词和副词。如: I'm not very good at maths.我的数学不太好。 very mush 用于修饰动词。

38.it/one He's got my bat.I musy get it back from him.他拿了我的球拍,我必须把它拿回来。 I have lost my pen.I think I must buy one.我把钢笔丢了,我想必须另买一支了。 <辨析>it one 都可以用作替代词,代替前面提到过的名词。it 与前面的名词同指一件事物。one 所代替的是前面提到的同类事物,但不是同一件,具有泛指的性质。试比较: Do you want the pencil?Yes,I want it.你想要这支铅笔吗?是的,我想要这支铅笔。 Do you want a pencil?Yes,I want one.你想要铅笔吗?是的,我想要一支铅笔。

39.look for/find I'd better go and look for him now.我最好现在去找他。 I think you can find him at home.我想你会在家里找到他。 <辨析>两者都有的意思。look for 意为寻找,强调找的动作。find 意为找到找出发现,强调找的结果。如: He is looking for his dictionary,but he can't find it.他正在找他的词典,可是找不到。

40.play/play with(1) Who are you going to play?你们将同谁比赛? Who did he play with?他和谁一起玩? <辨析>第一个句子中的 play 是及物动词,意为“与......比赛”,who 用作 play 的宾语。应注意 play 作此义解时,不可与 with 连用,后面直接跟表“某人或某队”的名词作宾语。第二个句子中的 play 是不及物动词,play with 表示“和......一起玩”,who 作 with 的宾语。

41.excuse me/sorry Excuse me,may I use you pen?对不起,我可以用你的钢笔吗? Sorry,I can't tlak to him that way.对不起,我不能那样对他说话。 <辨析>两者都可以表示对不起请原谅excuse me 为客套语,常常在向人问路要离开(会场、会场活动等)插话表示许可表示异议向对方询问情况可能会引起对方不快等场合使用。如; Excuse me,which is the way to the station?对不起,请问到车站的路怎么走。 Excuse me,is this watch yours?对不起,这块表是你的吗? Excuse me for not going to the door with you.对不起,不送你到门口了。 sorry I am sorry 的省略形式,侧重用于事后对所犯的过错或不能满足对方的要求而向对方表示歉意的场合。用 I am sorry 时,其后常接不定式或从句。如: I'm sorry to trouble you .对不起,麻烦你了。 I'm sorry that I shall not be able to come.对不起,我不能来。 excuse me I am sorry 都可用于事后表示道歉,两者都可接 for 短语,但 excuse me 后面不接不定式或从句。试译:对不起,我来晚了。误:Excuse me to be late. 正:Excuse me(I'm sorry)for being late.

42.home/at home John wasn't back home then.当时约翰还没有回家。 Stay at home and take good care of your mother.留在家里,好好照顾你的母亲。 <辨析>第一句中的 home 是副词,作“回家”,“到家”解,常置于表“来去”的动词(come,go,walk,get.arrive,hurry,return,be back等)之后,home 前不可加任何介词。如: I go home at five in the afternoon.我下午5点回家。 They will arrive home soon.他们很快就要到家了。有时还可以跟在 bring,take,sand 等动词所带的宾语之后。如: The teacher sent me home.老师送我回家。第二个句子中的 home 是名词,与 at 连用表示“在家”,通常与诸如 live,be,work,stay 之类的动词连用。如: He is working at home.他在家干活。注意:在美国英语中,常把 home 当作 at home。如: She is home today=She is at home today.她今天在家。

43.must/have to I must do my best.我必须尽我所能去做。 Mother is ill,I have to look after her at home.母亲病了,我必须在家照顾她。 <辨析>两者都可以表示必须must 着重于主观上以为有义务,有必要。have to 着重于客观上的需要,含有不得不的意味。如: We must work hard.我们必须努力工作(是我们要这样做) We have to work hard.我们得卖力干活。(环境使我们不得不这样做) must 只有一种形式,通常表现在或将来时间,而 have to 有各种时态形式。如: When I was your age,I already had to work.我象你们那么大时,早已不得不工作了。 I'll have to go with her tomorrow.明天我得同她一道去。注意:用于否定,两者意思有很大的不同。mustn't 表示不准不许可禁止have not to( don't have to)表示“”不必,与 needn't 同义。如: You must not smoke in the classroom.不准你在教室里抽烟。 You don't have to worry about his studies.你不必为他的学习而担心。

44.learn/study It takes a long time to learn to draw well.学会画画要花很长时间。 Above everything else,study Marxism.学习马克思主义是头等重要的事情。 <辨析>这两个动词都作学习解,有时可以互换。如: We have learnde( studied)English for three years. 我们学习英语已经三年了。 learn 往往指通过学习、练习或别人的教授以获得某种知识和技能,侧重学习的成果,有学会学到的意思。study 通常指比较深入地学习,含有努力去学的意味,它侧重学习的过程,有研究钻研的意思。

45.question/problem Can you answer this question.你能回答这个问题吗? He was thinking about a maths problem.他正在思考一道数学题。 ,辨析>这两个词都作问题解。question 通常指人们主观上产生的、需要得到解答或解释的问题。problem 常指客观上存在的等待解决的问题,着重指困难的问题或有关运算的问题。有时两者可以互换。如: The question(或problemis that we don't know who did it.问题是我们不知道谁干的。注意:解答问题 answer the question解决问题 solve(或decidethe problem

46.date/day What's the date?今天几号? What's day is it?今天星期几? <辨析>date 与 day 都可用来询问“今天是什么日子”,但意义不同。date 问的是“几月几号”,回答是"It's May 5."。day 问的是“星期几”,回答是"It's Sunday."等。此外两者之间还有以下区别: date 是指具体的“日期”(某件事情发生的年、月、日),一般用单数。如: The date of her birth is July 15.1966.她出生的日期是1966年7月15日。 day 泛指“日子”,a day 是“一天”,days 是“一些日子”。如: There are twenty-four hours in a day.一天有24个小时。 He'll come back in a few days.几天后他将回来。

47.all/whole All the students went to the Summer Palace yesterday.昨天所有的同学都去了颐和园。 I told him the whole story.我把整个情况都告诉了他。 <辨析>all whole 意思一样,但用法不同,all 与复数名词连用时,有所有的意思,与不可数名词连用时,有整个的全部的意思。如:all my teachers 我所有的老师,all the time 全部的时间。 whole 的后面大都接单数名词,如:the whole class 全班。它一般不能与物质名词连用,不可以说 the whole money,应该说 all the money 全部的钱。注意:all whole 在名词短语中的位置是不同的。all 用于冠词,所有格或其它限定词之前,whole 则用于冠词,所有格或其它限定词之后。

48.laugh/smile The children are jumping and laughing.孩子们又跳又笑。 The girl is smiling.这女孩在微笑。 <辨析>这两个动词都有“笑”的意思。laugh 是不及物动词,表示出声的笑,有时是大笑。smile 可作不及物动词,意思是“微笑”,指面部露出高兴的表情,也可作及物动词,意为“以微笑表示”。如: She smiled her thanks.她笑了笑表示感谢。 laugh 与 smile 都可以与介词 at 连用,表示“讥笑”。如: She laughed(或 smiled)at me.她笑我。

49.stay/live They stayed there for half an hour.他们在那待了半个小时。 I live in Beijing.我住在北京。 <辨析>stay 意为短期逗留live 意为长期居住家住某处

50.begin/start He began to learn Japanese three years ago.三年前他开始学日语。 After a few minutes she started to cry again.几分钟后,她又哭了起来。 <辨析>两者都可以作开始解。它们的区别在于,begin 动作性较弱,指较慢的开始,其反义词为 endstart 动作性较强,常有突然开始的意思,其反义词为 stop。如: After a year's hard work,his English began to improve.经过一的的努力学习,他的英语水平开始提高。 Let's start to sweep the room right now.咱们现在就立刻开始打扫这个房间。这两个动词都可以作及物或不及物动词。作及物动词时都可跟名词,动名词或动词不定式,在许多场合它们实际上没有什么差别。如: Shall we start(begin)dinner?可以吃饭了吧? He'll begin(start)working.他将开始工作。开头提到的两个例句中的 begin start 也可互换。但以下几种情况只能用 start,不能用 begin 1)表示(机器)开动。如: The man can't start the car.这个人不能起动这辆车。 2)表示创办开设。如: He started a new shop last year.去年他开了一家新商店。 3)表示出发动身。如: We must start early.我们得早出发。

51.first/at first Let's see who gets there first.咱们看看谁先到哪? At first she was asleep.起初她睡着了。 <辨析>first 用作副词,意为“第一次”,“首先”。如: I'll have to turn the wallet in first.我得先上交钱夹。 He was only a child when I first saw him.我第一次看见他的时候,他还是个孩子。 at first 与 at the beginning 同义,是“起初”的意思。如: Are you interested in physics?Yes,but I wasn't at first.你对物理感兴趣吗?是的,但起初我并不感兴趣。

52.before/in front of The meeting was over before three o'clock.会议三点前已经开完了。 There is a jeep in front of the house.房子前面有一辆吉普车。 <辨析>before in front of 都有......之前的意思,当表示在某种位置前时,两者可以通用。如: She sits before( in front of)me in the classroom.在教室里她坐在我前面。 They are standing in front of(before)the blackboard.他们正站在黑板前面。当表示在建筑物的前面时,宜用 in front of 。如: The car stopped in front of the cinema.汽车停在电影院的前面。当表示在某段时间某一事件之前时,宜用 before,不能用 in front of 。如: Before liberation he lived a poor life.解放前,他过着贫穷的生活。 Please come to see me before Sunday.请在星期日以前来看我。

53.bring/take Must I bring the book back?我必须把这本书带回来吗? Our teacher will take us to the Summer Palace tomorrow.明天我们的老师将带我们去颐和园。 <辨析>这两个动词都有的意思。bring 指将某物(人)从别处带(拿)来。take 则指将某物(人)从说话者所在地带(拿)走。bring out take out 都作取出来解,两者可以互换。如: Quickly the artist brought( took)out paper and a brush. 画家很快拿出纸和画笔。

54.everyone/every one I'm going to tell everyone.我准备告诉每个人。 Every one of us tyuekes sports.我们每个人都喜欢运动。 <辨析>everyone=everybody 意为每个人大家,其后不跟 of 引起的介词短语。every one 意为每个(人或物),具体指什么要看后面 of 短语的内容,如果后面没有 of 短语,要用 everyone 表示人,evey one 表示物。

55.evening/night We do our homework at seven in the evening.我们晚上7点做家庭作业。 I go to bed after eleven at night.我晚上11点以后睡觉。 <辨析>这两个词都有夜晚的意思。evening 意为黄昏傍晚晚上,即指日落到晚上11点以前的一段时间。night 意为夜间,即日落后到日出前一段时间,但在实际使用时,多指从睡觉时刻(10点后)到拂晓 之间的夜间。注意:昨夜通常可译成 last night yesterday evening今晚可以说 this evening,但不说 this night

56.be/do/make Let us be friends.我们做朋友吧。 She does her lessons in the evening.她晚上做功课。 The boy likes to make model planes.那男孩喜欢做飞机模型。 <辨析>这三个动词都有的意思。be 指人做某种行当,人变为某种身份,如:be a good student 做一个好学生。do 指做某种工作,如:do morning exercises(homework etc.)做早操(作业等)。make 指做某种东西,如:make a machine(a hat,a coat,a desk,a chair etc.)制造机器(做帽子、上衣、鞋、桌子、椅子等)。

57.people/the people I think people can understand. 我想人们能懂我的话。 We study for the people.我们为人民而学习。 <辨析>people 意为“人”,“人

,是集体名词,作复数用,可以用 two two 以上的基数词修饰。如果 people 作主语,谓语动词应用复数形式。如: There are five people in the room.房间里有5个人。(不能说 five peoples) the people 意为人民。注意:说一个人不用"a people",应用"a person""a people"意为一个民族。许多国家或地区的不同民族为 peoples。如 the peoples of Afriva 非法各民族。

58.little/a little I have little ink.我没有多少墨水了。 I have a little ink.我还有一点墨水。 <辨析>little a little 都可用用定语,只修饰不可数名词。little 意为没有多少,往往有否定的含义。a little 意为有一些有一点往往有肯定的含义。试比较: I have little time,I can't finish the work.我没有多少时间了,我不能完成这项工作。 I have a little time,so I can finish the work.我还有一点时间,所以我能完成这项工作。 little a little 还可在句中作主语、宾语和状语。如: Is there any?Yes,there is a ilttle.还有一些吗?是的,还有一些。(作主语) I know a little about your schooll.你们学校的情况我知道一点。(用宾语) I see him very little我很少见到他。(作状语)

59.how many/how much How many days are there in a week?一星期有多少天? How much ink have you?你有多少墨水? <辨析>这两个词组都表示多少的意思。how many 后跟可数名词复数。how much 后跟不可数名词,它本身还可以表示什么价钱?如: How much is the coat?这件上衣要多少钱?

60.a bit/a little The coat looks a bit larger.这件上衣看上去大了一点。 I know a little English.我懂点英语。 <辨析>a bit a little 都有一点的意思。两者均可用作程度状语,修饰形容词和副词,常可换用。如: He came a little(或 a bitlate.他来晚了一点。 Can't you walk a bit(或 a littlefaster?难道你不能走快一点吗? a little 可以用作形容词直接修饰不可数名词,a bit 则不能,但可与 of 构成短语,其功能与 a little 相似。试译:请给我一点水。误:Give me a bit water,please. 正:Give me a bit of water,please. 正:Give me a little water,please. 注意:not a little not a bit 两者含义不同,前者意为很多不少”(=much),后者意为一点也不一点也没有”(=not at all)试比较: I'm not a little cold.我很冷。 I'm not a bit cold.我一点也不冷。

61.very/much Mike is very tall.迈克个子非常高。 Mike is much taller than John.迈克个子比约翰高得多。 <辨析>very much 都可用作副词,译作非常,它们的区别主要有以下几点: 1)very 修饰原级形容词和副词,much 修饰比较级形容词和副词,如上述两例。 2)very 修饰作形容词用的现在分词,much 修饰动词性较强的过去分词。如: This is book very inveresting.这本书非常有趣。 He was much surprised at the news.他听到这个消息大吃一惊。有的过去分词已无动作意味,完全形容词化了,这时既可用 very 修饰,也可用 much 修饰。如: I am very ( much)tired.我非常累了。动词的被动式只能用 much 修饰,不能用 very 修饰。如: I was much tired by the work.我被这任务弄得很累。 3)much 可以修饰动词,very 则不能。如: He doesn't like skating much.我不太喜欢滑冰。

62.elder/older My elder brother is a PLA man.我的哥哥是解放军战士。 He is older than I.他年龄多我大。 <辨析>elder older 均为形容词 old 的比较级,但用法不同。elder 只用于人,多指兄弟姐妹之间年龄长幼中的,只用作定语,不用作表语,不能同 than 连用。older 可用于人或物,用于人时,指实际年龄大小中的;用于物时,意为较旧的,既可作定语、表语,也可同 than 连用。如: Your bike is older than mine.你的自行车比我的旧。 elder 可用作名词,单数指两人中年龄较大的人,复数泛指长辈,而 old 没有这种说法。 He is the elder of the two brothers.两兄弟中他是老大。 Children should respect their elders.孩子们应该尊敬长辈。

63.in/into She is walking in the room.她正在房间踱来踱去。 She is walking into the room.她正走进房间。 <辨析>in 意为......,是表示静态的介词,into 意为......,是表示动态的复合介词。如: What's in the pencil box?铅笔盒里有什么? He jumped into the river.他跳进河里。在动词 put,throw,break,lay,fall 等之后,既可用 in,也可用 into,这时 in 表示动作,常含有 into 的意思。如: He put all the books in ( into)the bag.他把所有的书放进书包里。 in 可用作副词,into 则不能。如: Come in!进来!

64.be going to/will I am going to play football this afternoon.今天下午我将踢足球。 I will be fifteen years old next year.明年我将15岁。 <辨析>be going to will 都能用来表示意图,如获至宝述第一句中的 am going to 也可用 will 替换。但是,意图有强弱之分,如果事先经过考虑,就得用 be going to 表示,不用 will。如: Tom has just borrowed the axe;he is going to chop some wood.汤姆刚借来斧子,他要劈些木柴。反之,如果不是事先考虑,就得用 will,不用 be going to,这种用 will 的场合多见于会话时乙方听了甲方的话之后所作的反应。如: ASorry I forgot to post the letter for you.对不起,我忘了替你寄这封信了。 B:Never mind,I'll post it myself tonight.不要紧,今晚我自己去寄。 be going to will 也可用于表示预测。前者表示根据目前迹象,事情非常有可能发生,后者则表示说话者认为或相信会发生某事。如: Look at those clouds!It's going to rain.瞧那些云吧,快下雨了。 I think it will rain.我认为会下雨。以下几种情况用 will,不宜用 be going t 1)表示带意愿色彩的将来时: We will help him if he asks us.只要他提出,我们乐意帮助他。 2)在问对方是否愿意或表示客气的邀请或命令时: Will you please lend me your rubber?请把你的橡皮借给我好吗? 3)客观事物的发生与主观愿望和判断无关,即表示纯粹将来时: The sun will rise at 6:30 tomorrow morning.明天早晨太阳将在630升起。开关提到的第二个句子也属这种情况。

65.as/like Is Joan as tall as Kate?琼和凯特一样高吗? I made faces and jumped like a monkey.我做鬼脸,并象猴子一样跳来跳去。 <辨析>as like 都表示......意思。as 是连接词,引导比较状语从句,从句中的动词或整个谓语部分往往可省略。如: This book is as interesting as that one (is).这本书像那本书一样有趣。 She runs as fast as he (runs)她跑得和他一样快。 as 还可引导方式状语从句。如: I work as others do.我象别人一样的工作。 like 用作介词,后接名词或宾格代词。如: The building looks like a hospital.这幢大楼看上去像一所医院。 He is just like everybody else.他跟别人完全一样。 as 也可用作介词,但与 like 的意思不同。试比较: Let me speak to you as a father.我作为一个父亲在同你说话。 Let me speak to you like a fathe.让我象一位父亲那样同你讲话。

66.as...as/so...as... He jumps as high as Jack.他跳得跟杰克一样高。 He did not come so early as Tom.他来得没有汤姆那样早。 <辨析>as...as... so...as... 均用于同等比较,前者用于肯定句和否定句,后者只用于否定句。如: It is as warm today as yesterday.今天和昨天一样暖和。(不可用 so...as...) It is not so(as)warm todyay as yesterday.今天不如昨天那样暖和。注意:as so 后面的形容词如作定语,而被定语修饰的名词有不定冠词 a 时,冠词 a 需放在形容词之后。试译:汤姆与他哥哥一样聪明。误:Tom is as a clever boy as his brother. 正:Tom is as clever a boy as his brother. 英语不如俄语那样难学。误:English is not so a difficult language as Russian. 正:English is not as difficult a language as Russian.

67.what/how What a nice watch it is!多么好看地一块手表啊! How bright and near the moon looks tonight!今晚月亮看上去是多么地亮,多么地近啊! <辨析>what how 都可以引导感叹句,意为多么......what 用于修饰名词(名词前通常有形容词),当修饰单数名词时,需用 what a。如: What beautiful pictures they are!多么美丽的图画啊! What a good student he is!他是多么好的一个学生! What exciting news this is!这是多么使人兴奋的消息! how 用于修饰形容词,副词和动词。如: How interesting the story is!这个故事多么有趣啊! How hard she studies!她学习多么努力啊! How she missed her daughter!她多么思念女儿啊!注意:What a nice watch it is!=How nice a watch it is!

68.animal/beast There are many animals n the zoo.动物有多少动物? If any beast comes at you,I'll stay with you and help you.如果野兽向你扑来,我将同你在一起并帮助你。 <辨析>这两个名词都作动物解。animal 是动物的总称,通常指兽、鸟、虫、鱼等,区别于植物(plant)beast 意为,指较大的四足兽,区别于爬行动物、鸟类,昆虫等。

69.difficult/hard It's difficult for me to work out the maths problem.我很难解出这道数学题。 It's hard for me to carry the heavy box.我很难把这只箱子提起来。 <辨析>两者都可以表示困难的difficult 侧重于问题复杂难于处理需要智慧或技巧才能解决。hard 较口语化,也可以指在智力方面所存在的困难,如上述第一例句中的 difficult 可改成 hard。当指在体力方面存在困难时,通常用 hard。注意:表示某人做某事感到困难不可以说sb.is difficult (hard)to do sth.,应该说It is dificult(hard)for sb.to do sth

70.door/gate I am closing the door.我在关门。 At the gate a guard stopped him.警卫在大门口拦住了他。 <辨析>这两个词都有的意思。door 指房屋,车辆,厨柜等的门;gate 指城市,学校,工厂,公园,戏院等有围墙的大门。 71.shout at/shout to "Don't shout at him,"Lenin told the young man.列宁对那年轻人说,不要朝他嚷。” She shouted to her mother to come.她大声叫喊要她母亲来。 <辨析>shout at 表示由于气愤而无礼或粗鲁地高声向某人喊叫。shout to 则表示提高嗓门与某人搭话。

72.in class/in the class One afternoon some boys made of a lot of noise in class.一天下午,几个男生在课堂上大吵大闹。 The teacher gave more difficult work to little Gauss than to the other boys in the class.老师给小高斯的作业比给班里其他同学的都难。 <辨析>in class 意为在课堂上class 前不用冠词;in the class 意为在这个班级中73.at(in) school/at(in) the school Young Tom was in school for only three months.汤姆年轻时,只上过三个月的学。 He was new in the school .他是那所学校的新生 <辨析>at(in) school 意为在上学在求学school 前不用冠词。at(in) the school 意为在学校里(指地点)

74.each/every Each student has an English book.每个学生都有一本英语书。 Every student must study well.每个学生都必须好好学习。 <辨析>each every 都有每个的意思,它们在用法上有所不同。 1each 着重于个别的含义;every 着重于全体的含义,和 all 的意思相近,如上述第二个例句中的 every student 相当于 all the student 2each 可以用来指两个或两个以上的人或东西,但是 every 却总是指三个或三个以上的数量,不能指两个。试译:街道两旁有许多商店。误:There are many shops on every side of the street. 正:There are many shops on each side of the street. 3)every 只能用作定语,each 不仅可用定语,而且和名词一样可作主语,宾语和同位语。试译:每个人都有自己的名字。误:Every has his own name. 正:Each has his own name.

75.ask/please The villagers always asked them to stay for lunch.乡亲们总是请他们留下来吃中午饭。 Will you please give your seat to this old man?请你把你的坐位让给这位老人好吗? <辨析>两者都有的意思。ask 是及物动词,意为请求,后接名词或代词或带不定式的复合结构,还可用邀请解,常和副词或俚语短语连用。如: I came to ask you a favour.我来请你帮个忙。 Ask him to close the door.请他把门关上。 One evening they asked him to dinner at a restaurant.有天晚上他们请他到一家饭馆去吃饭。 please 是个语气词,用于语气委婉的祈使句中,表示客气和谦和的请求,可置于句首,句中或句末,在句末时其前常用逗号隔开。如: Please open the window.请把窗户打开。 Give me a piece of paper,please.请给我一张纸

第四部分76.too/either We were there,too.我们也在那里。 I don't know the way,either.我也不知道怎么走。 <辨析>这两个词都有“也”的意思。too 一般用在肯定句中,放在句末,或作为插入语放在句中。如: She,too,is a singer.她也是位歌唱家。 either 用在否定句中,必须放在句末。注意:either 本身不含有否定意义。试译:他没有来,他弟弟也没有来。误:He didn't come,his brother either. 正:He didn't come,his brother didn't either.

77.either/any Here are two knives.You can take either of them.这有两把刀,你拿哪把都行。 Here are three knives.You can take any of them.这有三把刀,你拿哪把都行。 <辨析>either 表示“这个或那个”,即“两者中的任何一个”;any 则表示“三者(以上)中的任何一个”。

78.sometime/some time/sometimes We shall visit the Science Museum sometime next week.我们将在下个星期的某个时候参观科学博物馆。 It took me some time to do the work.这项工作我花了一段时间。 My father sometimes takes a bus to the factory.我父亲有时乘公共汽车去工厂。 <辨析>sometime 是副词,意为“在某个时候”,可以同将来时连用,也可以同过去时连用。如: He was here sometime last year.去年某一时候他在此地。 some time 可用作名词词组,意为“一段时间”。也可用作副词词组,用来指一个未肯定的时刻,常指将来,可与 sometime 通用。如: I stayed here for some time.我在这呆了一段时间。 Let's have dinner some time(=sometime) next week.下星期找个时间咱们一块吃顿饭。 sometimes 意为“有时”、“不时”,是频度副词,常与一般现在时或过去时连用。如: Sometimes they make model ships.有时他们制作轮船模型。

79.maybe/may be Maybe you put it in your basket.也许你把它放在你的篮子里了。 I hear there may be a few copies left.我听说可能还剩下几本。 <辨析>maybe 是副词,意为“也许”,“可能”,用作状语。may be 意为“也许是”,“可能是”,may 是情态动词,与 be 一起作谓语用。

80.in hospital/in the hospital He's in hosiptal.他在住院。 He work in the hospital.他在医院工作。 <辨析>在英国,in hospital 解作“住院”,hospital 具有抽象化的意义,不指某个具体的地点,故不用冠词。in the hospital 意为“在医院”。不过在美国英语里,in the hospital 也表示“住院”。

81.talk about/talk to We'll talk about some pictures. His classmates often talk to each other in English. <>talk about talk to to with(with)

82.at the corner/in the corner/on the corner I saw her at the corner of the street yesterday. There is a chair in the corner of the room. The book is on the corner of ther desk. <>at the corner in the corner on the corner at the corner

83.say/tell Can you say it in English?这个你会用英语说吗? Excuse me,can you tell me the way to the Capital Stadium.劳驾,请问(告诉我)到首都体育馆怎么走? <辨析>say 的意思是“说”,“说到”,多指用言语表达自己的思想,着重说的内容,是及物动词,它的宾语可以是名词,代词或从句,有时还可以跟直接引语。如: I can my A B C.我会念ABC了。 Everybody said it was a good film.人人都说这部电影好。 She's saying,"Don't draw on the wall."她在说,“别在墙上画画。” tell 的意思是“告诉”,可用作及物动词,后跟双宾语结构,有时表示“嘱咐或语气较轻的命令”,常用于 tell sb.to do sth.结构。如: Our teacher told us a story.老师给我们讲了个故事。 I told him that Xiao Li was in hospital.我告诉他小李住院了。 Tell him to give you some paper.叫他给你一些纸。

84.speak/talk Do you speak English?你会说英语吗? We sat together and talked.我们坐在一起闲谈。 <辨析>speak 的意思是“说话”,指说话的能力和方式,一般用作不及物动词,也作“演讲”解;此外可作及物动词,其宾语往往是语言名称。如: Who's going to speak at the meeting?谁打算在会上发言? She is speaking to the assistant.她正在同图书管理员说话。 He can speak three language.他能说三种语言。 talk 的意思是“谈话”,“交谈”,指相互之间的谈话,一般作不及物动词用,要表示谈到关于某人某事时,后接介词 about 或 of。如: Please stop talking and listen to me.请不要说话了,听我说说。 Let's not talk about it now.这事现在咱们别谈了。 talk to 和 speak to 都可表示“和......谈话”,可以通用。如: I shall speak(或 talk) to him about it tomorrow.这件事我明天要同他谈谈。

85.very/too Many students are doing very well in English.许多学生的英语学得很好。 The cap is too big for me.这顶帽子我戴太大。 <辨析>两者都是程度副词,都可用于修饰形容词或副词。very 意为“很”,表示程度的增加,too 意为“太”,“过分”,表示超过容许的程度。如: It was very cold yesterday.昨天天气很冷。 It's too cold today.今天天气太冷。注意:very 不能与 too 连用,不可以说 It's very too cold.应将 vey 改为 much 或 far.

86.about/on This is a story about Lei Feng.这是一个关于雷锋的故事。 When shall we have the talk on the history of the Party?我们什么时候听党史报告? <辨析>about 和 on 都可和某些名词或动词连用,表示“关于”的意思。在涉及文章、书籍、谈话、演说、报告等有关内容时,两者可通用。如:a book on(about)the radio 一本关于无线电的书。about 表示内容较为普通,不那么正式,on 用于较正式的场合,表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的或学术性的,着重于知识的浓度。如: This is a book for children about Africa and its people.这是一本供儿童阅读的有关非洲和非洲人的书。 We are going to listen to a lecture on African history this afternoon.今天下午我们将听(一个关于)非洲历史(的)演讲。 I heard him talk about Chinese medicine last night.昨晚我听到他谈中国医学。(泛谈) I hrard hm talk on Chinese medicine last night.昨晚我听到他谈论中国医学。(有系统地谈)注意:learn about,read about,quarrel about,hear about,a story about 等短语一般不涉及知识的浓度,所以不能用 on 代替 about。

87.road/street/way What's on the road?大道上有什么? Don't play in the street!别在街(道)上玩! Liu Mei is on her way to the films.刘梅正(在)去看电影的路上。 <辨析>road 意为“路”,“道路”,指供车辆或行人通过的大道,两侧一般没有房子。如: The car is running along the road.汽车沿(着这条道)路行驶。 street 意为“街道”,指城镇、乡村任何两旁有房子的路。“在街上”可以说 on the street,也可以说 in the street,前者是美国英语,后者是英国英语。说“在......街第几号”,介词要用 at。如: They live at No.24 Riverside Street.他们住在河滨街24号。 way 意为“道路”,指 street,road 或任何可以通行的路,含义较抽象,口语中问路常用到它,还可以指路程距离。如: I asked the way to the station.我打听到去车站的路。 It was a long way.路(程)很远。

88.in the tree/on the tree/from the tree The little girl saw a beautiful bird n the tree. There are lots of apples on the tree. The monkey was hanging from the tree by his tail and laughing. <辨析>这三人短语都有“在树上”的意思。in 表示“在某范围内,如果说“鸟、猴、松鼠等”隐于树叶之中,则用 in the tree。on 表示“在某物之上(表示接触)”,如果说“苹果,香蕉,梨子”等长在树上,则用 on the tree。指“某物吊在树上”则用 from the tree。

89.a lot/a lot of/lots of We have a lot to do.我们有很多事情要做。 There are a lot of bread on the table.桌上有许多面包。 Lots of people went swimming in the river yesterday.昨天很多人去河里游泳。 <辨析>这三个短语都可以作“许多”解。a lot 可以用作名词,当宾语;也可以作副词,修饰动词;或用于修饰比较级。如: We works a lot at home.他在家里干很多活。 She is a lot cleverer than I am.她比我聪明很多。 a lot of 与 lots of 可以互换,修饰可数名词或不可数名词,多用于肯定句。在疑问句和否定名中常用 many 或 much 代替。如: He has a lot of(lots of)books.他有许多书。 There is a lot of(lots of)news on the radio tonight.今晚广播(里)有很多新闻。 Are there many people in the park?公园里有许多人吗? There isn't much ink in the bottle. 瓶子里墨水不多。

90.like/would like I like playing basketball.我喜欢打篮球。 Would you like to play basketball with me?同我一道打篮球好吗? <辨析>like 意为“喜欢”,“喜爱”,后接名词、代词、不定式或动名词。如: Of all ball games I like tennis best.在所有球类运动中,我最喜欢网球。 I like to read in bed.我喜欢躺在床上看书。 like 后接动名词和不定式意思基本相同,只是动名词着重指经常的行为,不定式着重指特定的具体的行为动作。如: He likes skating,but he doesn't like to skate this afternoon.他喜欢滑冰,但他不喜欢在今天下午滑冰。 would like 意为“想要”,“愿意”,用于礼服提出要求或表示愿意提供帮助,后接名词、代词或动词不定式,不能跟动名词。如: Would you like some bananas?你要吃香蕉吗? They wouldn't like to wait.他们不会愿意等待。

91.throw...at.../throw...to... With these words,the monkey threw the big stone at the crocodile.说完(话后),猴子把那块大石头向鳄鱼(身上)砸去。 He threw a ball t the dolphim.他把球扔给海豚。 <辨析>thorw 后接 at 和 to 意思不一样。用介词 at 表示恶意的行为,用介词 to 则不表示恶意。试比较: He threw the ball at me.他把皮球向我身上掷去。(要砸我) He threw the ball to me.他把皮球掷给我。

92.by/withThe monkey was hanging from the tree by its tail.猴子用尾巴在树上倒挂着。 I work with my hands.我用手劳动。 <辨析>两者都是介词,作解。by ......手段......方法凭借......动作,所表示的方法,手段,途径比较抽象,后接名词、代词或动名词,也可和 bus,train,plane,bike 等词连用,表示交通或通讯手段。如: We learn to swim by swimming.我们通过游泳学习游泳。 He always comes by bus.他一向坐公共汽车来。 You must learn every word by heart.你必须把每个单词都记住。 with 表示用什么工具,所用的东西都是具体的物。如: He wrote the letter with a pencil.他用铅笔写这封信。

93.away/off She is away from home.他远离家乡。 We are off at once. 我们马上出发。 <辨析>两者都是副词,awaw 表示距离,off 表示分离。在表示离开的意味时,away 不侧重到什么地方去,off 有由一个位置到另一个位置的含义。与动词 go,send,walk,fly 等连用时,两者常可替换。如: The bird flew off(away).鸟飞走了。 off 除用作副词外,还可用作介词,表示......离开。如: The monkey jumped off the crocodile at once.猴子马上跳离鳄鱼。(此处不能用 away 代替 off)

94.be strict in/be strict with We should be strict in all our work.我们应当严于一切职守。 Her parents are very strict with her.她的父母对她很严格。 <辨析>be strict 表示在某个特定方面严格要求in be strict with 表示对某人要求严格

95.tomorrow morning/the next morning She is going to get up at five tomorrow morning.明天早上她将5点起床。 The next morning Jenny got up even earlier.第二天早晨詹妮起得更早了。 <辨析>tomorrow morning 意为明天早上(上午)the next morning 指除今天以外的任何日子的下一天的早上或上午。即作次日早上(上午)解。

96.can/be able to I can sing in English.我能用英语唱歌。 I won't be able to see him tobay.今天我见不着他。 <辨析>can be able to 都可表示,当表示现在或过去能力所及时,两者可通用。如: He can( is able to) speak German.他会主德语。 I could( was able to) run very fast when I was a boy.我小时候跑得非常快。 be able to 的过去时还可以表示一种经过努力做到了的意思,can 的过去时则没有这种用法。如: He started last,but he was able to catch the eight o'clock train.他出发晚了,但他努了一把力,还是赶上了800的火车。 can 通常只用于上述两种时态,而 be able to 还可用于将来时和完成时态。如: He has not been able to come.他未能来。

97.by train/on the train Every day he went there by train.每天他乘火车去那儿。 One evening after work,the boy was going home on the train.一天晚上下班后,那男孩正乘火车回家。 <辨析>by train on the train 都有乘火车的意思。by train 是习惯用法,中间不能加冠词,如 by bus,by bike,by plane,by spaceship 等。但是,交通工具如有 a,the,his 等修饰时,通常用 in on(on 是美国英语)。如: I wish I could fly to the moon in(on) a spaceship one day.但愿有一天我能坐宇宙飞船飞向月球。 We go to school on(in) a bus.我们乘公共汽车上学。 He goes to work in(on) his own car every day.他每天乘自己的小汽车上班。如果交通工具前有表示时刻的词语时,用 by on 都可以。如: We shall go by(on) the eleven o'clock train.我们将乘1100的火车去。注意:骑自行车应该说 by bike on a bike,不可以说 in a bike

98.someone/some one "Something is wrong with that boy,"soemone said.有人说,那男孩有些不正常。” Some one of my friends will come to see me.我有位朋友会来看我。 <辨析>someone 意为某人”(=somebody),不能同 of 短语连用。some one 意为某一个(人或物),可以同 of 短语连用。注意:someone 作主语时,谓语动词要用单数。如: Someone says so.有人这样说。

99.like/love/enjoy I like singing.我喜欢唱歌。 She loves to dance.她喜欢跳舞。 Tom enjoys reading novels.汤姆喜欢看小说。 <辨析>like 意为喜欢爱好,是一般用词,语气较弱,主要指对某人,某事产生好感或发生兴趣,不带感情色彩。(其用法详见90 love 意为爱好,在感情上比 like 强烈,经常用于爱祖国,爱父母这一类程度比较深的情况。在口语中它往往仅指一般的喜爱,这样用时和 like 的意思很相近,可以互换,后面也可跟名词,动名词或动词不定式。如: We love our Party.我们热爱我们的党。 I love to go skating.我喜欢滑冰。(可用 like 替换) They love playing table tennis.他们爱打乒乓球。(可用 like 替换) enjoy 在意思上侧重于享受某种乐趣,后接名词或动名词,不能接动词不定式。enjoy 还可解作玩得高兴,常和反身代词连用。 I think everyone enjoyed your wonderful party.我想所有的人对你们精彩的晚会都很欣赏。 The boy enjoys listening to music.这孩子爱听音乐。 Did you enjoy yourselves at the party?你们在聚会上玩得愉快吗?

100.fast/quick We are going by the fast train.我们将乘快车。 After a quick breakfast she hurried to school.她迅速吃完早点,便匆匆赶往学校。 <辨析>这两个词都有的意思。都可用作形容词或副词,fast 一般指物体的运动速度快,常用来形容交通工具跑得快,钟走得快,人的动作快等等。如: A car goes faster than a truck.小汽车比卡车跑得快。 How fast the horse runs!这匹马跑得多快呀! quick 指用较短的时间或在较近的将来即可发生或完成某事,常用来形容在智力等方面反应灵敏。如: Please give me a quick reply.请迅速给我答复。 Come quick!快来啊!有时 fast quick 可以换用。如: Mayr is a fast( quick) worker.She made that dress in one evening.玛干活很利索,她一个晚上就做成了那件衣服。 He ran as fast( quick) asI.他跑得和我一样快

第五部分 123.in/after/later I hear he'sllbe back n a month.我听说一个月后他将回来。 She began to cry again after a few minutes.几分钟以后她又开始哭起来。 He fell ill on Monday and died three days later.他星期一得病,三天之后就死了。 <辨析>三者都含有“在......之后”的意思,但它们在用法上有区别。in 是介词,用来表示从现在算起的“过一段时间以后”,常用在将来时态的肯定句里,一般同 go,come,start,arrive,return(be back),finish 等表示瞬间动作的终止性动词连用。如: They will arrive in half an hour.半小时后他们将到达。 after 是介词,用来表示在某一具体时间(某日,某时)或某一具体事件以后,谓语动词可用过去时,也可用将来时。如: We will get there after two o'clock.两点钟以后我们将到达那里。 Just after seven it began to rain.刚过七点天就下起雨来了。 after 还可表示从过去某时起若干时间之后,谓语动词用过去时,不可用将来时。如: He started after three days.他在三天后出发了。 after 也可用作副词不达意,上句可改为:He started three days after. later 是副词,不可用于从讲话时刻算起的若干时间之后,要根据上下文推算从何时起至何时之后。如: I shall call on him on May 1st and shall call again about a week later.5月1日我将拜访他,大约一星期之后我再来拜访。(指5月1日起一星期之后) 但从现在起没有说明若干时间之后,则可以用 later。如: I shall call again later.我以后再来拜访。

124.look/seem He looked angry.他看来很生气。 After a while,it seemed that the birds were going to win.过了一会儿,看来鸟儿好象要打胜了。 <辨析>这两个动词都可作看起来解,look 着重于由视觉得出的印象,seem 暗示有一定根据,这种判断往往接近事实。在搭配上两者都可接形容词,名词(前面常有形容词修饰),动词不定式 to be,过去分词,介词短语和 as if 引导的从句。如: He looks( seems)a nice man.他看上去是一个好人。 You look( seems)tired.Let's have a rest.你似乎累了,我们休息一会儿吧。 The boy looked( seemed)to be very ill.那男孩看上去病得很重。但在以下几种情况下,只能用 seem,不能用 look 1)后接不定式 to do 时。试译:上尉好象认识他所有的士兵。误:The captain looked to know all his soldiers. 正:The captain seemed to know all his solders. 2)用于 It seems that 结构时。试译:看来他没搭上火车。误:It looksed that he had misssed the train. 正:It seemed that he had missed the train. 3)用于 There seems+to 不定式结构时。试译:运动场上好象有几百人。误:There looked to be hundreds of people on the play-ground. 正:There seemed to be hundreds of people on the play-ground.

125.hope/wish I hope she will be well.我希望她会痊愈。 I wish I could fly to the moon in a spaceship one day.但愿有一天我能坐上宇宙飞船飞向月球。 <辨析>这两个动词都可以表示希望hope 兼有打算之意,用于表示实现可能性很大的希望,后接动词不定式或从句。如: He hopes to be a college student.他希望成为大学生。注意:希望某人做某事英语习惯上不说 hope sb.to do sth.。试译:我希望你早点回来。误:I hope you to come back early. 正:I hope you will come back early. wish 后面可接不定式或代词(名词)+不定式,所表示的希望大体是可以实现的。wish 也可接从句,所表示的希望不大可能实现。从句中的谓语动词需用虚拟语气。如: The children wish to spend their holiday in the People's Park.孩儿们希望到人民公园去度假日。 We wish you to be happy.我们希望你幸福。 I wish I knew the answer.我真希望我知道这个答案。(实际上不知道) wish 还可接双宾语,表示祝愿hope 则没有这种用法。如: Let's wish you a long life.祝你长寿。

126.already/yet I have already finished my homework.我已经做完了家庭作业。 Has the train arrived yet?火车已经到达了吗? <辨析>already 和 yet 都可解作“已经”。already 主要用于肯定的陈述句中,通常与动词的完成时或进行时连用。如: Our visitors have come already.来宾已到。 When she hurried into her classroom,Mr Black was already beginning his lesson.她匆匆走进教室时,布莱克先生已经在开始上课了。有时也可以和一般现在时或过去时连用,但其动词是延续的。如: It is already six.已经6点了。 already 也可用在疑问句中,常表示“惊奇”、“意外”的意思。如: Have you already had breadfast?难道你吃过早饭了? yet 通常与一般现在时或现在完成时连用,多用于疑问句中。如: Has she decided yet?她已经决定了吗? Is breakfast ready yet?早饭准备好了吗?

127.still/yet All of my classmates are still in the classroom.我的同学都还在教室里。 The train hasn't arrived yet.火车还未到达。 <辨析>两者都含有仍然的意思。still 表示某事尚在进行中,常用在肯定句中,有时也用于疑问句。如: They are still working in the fields.他们仍在地里劳动。 Do you still teach in that school?你还在那所学校教书吗? still 也可用于否定句,位于否定句的助动词前。如: He still hasn't come back.他还没有回来。注意:still 在句中的位置不同,意思也不同。试比较: She is still standing.她仍然站着。 She is standing still.她站着一动也不动。(still 是形容词,作主语补足语,意为不动的静止的) yet 表示某事尚未完成,多用于否定句中或带否定词的陈述句中。如“ These words are not yet in the dictionary.这些词还没有收进词典里。 No woman has been to the moon yet.还没有妇女到过月球。

128.on earth/on the earth/in the earth What on earth are you doing here?你究竟在这儿干什么? You can jump much higher on the moon than on the earth.你在月球上跳能比在地球上跳得高得多。 If anyone set me free,I would show him the treasures in the earth.谁把我放了,我就让他知道埋藏在地下的所有珍宝。 <辨析>on earth 意为究竟到底,用于疑问词 who,what,where,when,why 等之后,以加强疑问的语气,也可以用在否定词之后,以加强否定的语气。如: How on earth did you know it?你到底是怎么知道的? Nothing on earth could make him change his mind.无论什么都不能使他改变主意。 on earth 还可以解作世界上世间,有时用于最高级之后,以加强其含义。如: You are the happiest man on earth.你是世界上最幸福的人。 on the earth 意为在地球上。如: We live on the earth.我们生活在地球上。 in the earth 意为在地里在地下。如: In the winter some animals hide in the earth .冬天有些动物藏在地下。

129.hear/hear of/hear from I hear that they miss us very much.我听说他们很想念我们。 Have you ever heard ofEdison?你听说过爱迪生的故事吗? have you heard from Joan recently?最近你收到过琼的来信吗? <辨析>hear hear of 都可解作听说hear 后面接宾语从句,hear of 后面接名词、代词或动名词。hear 还可作听见,听到解,后面可接名词、代词+不带 to 的不定式(或分词)复合结构。试比较: I heard him just now.我刚才听到他说话。 I've heard of him.我听人提到过他。 I heard him singing in the next room.我听见他在隔壁房间里唱歌。 I heard that he was shinging in the next room.我听说他在隔壁房间里唱歌。 heard from 意为收到......的信得到......消息。注意:hear from 的宾语应该是,而不是。试译:我们好几个星期未收到他的信了。误:We haven't heard from his letter for weeks. 正:We haven't heard from him for weeks.

130.work/works It's interesting work.它是项有趣的工作。 Who found the maps of the British army's defence works?谁发现了英军防御工事图。 <辨析>work 用作不可数名词时,意为工作职业。用作可数名词时,常用作复数,意为著作工厂(军事)工事

131.when/while When Aunt Huang came back,I was so tired.黄阿姨回来时,我累极了。 The young American stood quietly while the British grards searched his clothes.当英国卫兵搜查他的衣服时,这位年轻的美国人神色自若地站着。 <辨析>这两个词都可用作从属连词,表示时间,意思都是“当(在)......的时候”,但有所区别: when 的含义是 at or during the time that,既可用于指时间的一点(从句的谓语动词需用终止性动词),也可用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词用延续性的动词),从句与主句里面的谓语动作或状态能同时发生或紧接着发生,也可能一先一后分别发生。如: He wants to help people when they are ill.他想在人们生病的时候帮助他们。 When he heard this,the Genie changed again into smoke.妖怪一听这话,就又变成了烟。 When he reached Shanghai,the ship had already set off.他到达上海时,轮船已经开走了。 while 的含义是 during the time that,只能用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的),从句与主句里面的谓语动作只能表示同时发生,不能表示先后分别发生。如: One day while they were working in the fields,some farmers was something strange in the sky.有一天,一些农民在田间劳动的时候,发现空中有个奇怪的东西。 While I was reading,my mother was washing clothes.我读书时,我妈妈在洗衣服。这两个词还可用作并列连词。when 是“在那时”或“这时突然”(and just at that time)的意思,用来连接两个并列分词,有时 when 分句之前有逗号把前后两句分开。如: An Arab was walking along through the desert when he met two men.有个阿拉伯人正独自在沙漠里行走,这时他碰见了两个人。 I stayed till sunset,when it began to rain.我一真待到太阳下山,那时天开始下雨。 while 意为“而”,“却”,表示对照关系。如: Instead,he saked his father why he was not able to hatch chickens while hens could.他反而问他父亲,为什么他不能孵出小鸡,而母鸡却能孵出小鸡。

132.plenty/plenty of She gave the boys plenty to eat.她给了孩子们很多好吃的东西。 There is plently of rain in your country.你们国家雨水很多。 <辨析>plenty 通常用作名词,意为充足大量。如: Have you enough money for the ticket?Yes,I have plenty你买票的钱够吗?够的,我的钱足够了。. plenty 和名词结合必须加 of,plenty of 既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词,谓语动词的数由 plenty of 后面的名词而定。如: There are plenty of books on the desk.桌上有许多书。 Don't worry,There is plenty of time.别着急,时间很充裕。注意:plenty of 一般用于肯定句,在疑问句中常改成 enough,在否定句中常改用 many much。如: There is not much time.没有足够的时间。 Is there enough time?有足够的时间吗?

133.who/whom Who are you trying to fool?你想愚弄谁呀? To whom is she writing?她在给谁写信。 <辨的>who whom 都可作疑问代词,who 是主格,whom 是宾格。如: Who saw the thief?谁看见了那个贼?在日常口语中,常用 who 代替 whom 用作宾格(如开头提到的第一个例句),但是 who 不能直接用在介词后,这时,必须用 whom(如开头提到的第二个例句)。

134.so/such Did it take yu so long to do your homework?你做家庭作业花那么长时间吗? I've never seen such fine drawings.我从未见过这么好的画。 <辨析>两者都可以解作这样如此so 是副词,用于修饰形容词或副词。如: I am so glad to hear from my friend.我收到我朋友的信真高兴。 He writes to well.他写得这么好。 such 是形容词,用于修饰名词(名词前可以带形容词,也可以不带)。如果是单数可数名词,其前面必加不定冠词 a an。如: He told us such a funny story.他给我们讲了一个很有趣的故事。 You are interested in such things.你对这样的事感兴趣。注意:当单数可数名词前有形容词修饰时,也可用 so,但要调整冠词的词序。如: He told us so funny a story.

135.by oneself/for oneself/to oneself You must do your work by yourself.你必须独立做你的工作。 Do you have anything to say for yourself?你还有什么要为自己说的吗? What are you talking to yourself about?你自言自语说些什么? <辨析>by oneself 意为独自的无助的,强调某人独自做某事,而不需别人帮助,还可说 all by oneself 以加强语气。如: This box is too heavy for me to lift by myself.这个箱子太重,我一个人提不起。 We have got to do it all by ourselves.我们必须自己来干。 for oneself 解作为自己(的利益而做某事),还可作独自地解,与 by oneself 同义。如: He has built a house for himself.他为自己建造了一幢房子。 You must find it out for yourself.你必须自己把它找出来。 to oneself 意为暗自在心中,常与 talk,say,think 等动词连用。如: He said to himself that there was something wrong.他想这其中有毛病。注意:say to oneself 意为在心里想talk/speak to oneself 意为自言自语,两者不可混淆。

136.catch a cold/have a cold You must be careful not to catch a cold.你要当心点,不要感冒了。 Put on this coat,or you will have a cold.穿上这件大衣,否则你会感冒的。 <辨析>这两个短语都可以表示“感冒”。catch a cold 所表示的不是一个可以延续的动作,因此不能同表示一段时间的状语连用,have a cold 则表示一个持续的动作。试译:他感冒已经两天了。误:He has caught a cold for two days. 正:He has had a cold for two days. catch a cold 中我不定冠词 a 可以省略,但 cold 前面有形容词修饰时,则不能省略。 Yesterday my little sister caught (a) cold.昨天的我小妹妹得了感冒。 A Frenchman had caught a very bad cold.一个法国人得了重感冒。 have a cold 中的 a 无论在什么场合下均不能省略。

137.answer/reply He is answering the teacher's question.他正在回答老师的问题。 Did he reply to your last letter?他回你前一封信没有? <辨析>这两个动词都可解作回答答复answer 是日常用语,常用作及物动词,后接名词、代词或从句。如: He answered nothing.他什么也没有回答。 I cannot answer you now.我现在不能答复你。 He answered that he knew nothing about it.他回答说这件事他一点也不知道。 reply 是正式用语,常用作不及物动词,表示......作出回答时,后面要接 to,也可以用作及物动词,后接直接引语或从句。如: I asked him but he did not reply to me.我问他,但他没有答复我。 He relpied that he had not received my letter.他回答说他没有收到我的信。 "I can't work here any longer,"replied Johnny Ford.“我再也不能在这工作了,约翰尼.福特回答说。

138.think over/think of I can't answer the question right now.Let me think it over.我不能立刻回答这个问题,让我好好想一想。 I was thinking of this when I heard my name called.我正想着这件事的时候,听到有人叫我的名字。 <辨析>think over 意为仔细考虑,其中 over 是副词,用名词作宾语时,可放在 over 之前或之后;用代词作宾语时,必须放在 over 之前。think of 意为考虑想起,其中 of 是介词,不可与 think 拆开使用。think of think about 同义,一般两者可以互用。如: We are thinding of aboutgoing to Shanghai for our holidays.我们正考虑去上海度假。 I have thought over the questionthought the question overquite carefully.我已经非常仔细地反复考虑过这个问题。

139.cap/hat Where is my cap,Mum?妈,我的帽子在哪? Then he put on his coat and hat and went to a chemist's shop.于是,他穿上外衣,戴上帽子,到一家药店去了。 <辨析>两者都有帽子的意思。cap 通常指无边的或前面有遮檐的帽子。如军帽,制服帽,便帽等。hat 通常指户外所戴的有边围的帽子。

140.farmer/peasant Are you a farmer?你是个农民吗? What's the old peasant saying to them?那位老农在对他们说什么? <辨析>两者都可以作农民解。farmer 指经营农场的人,主要用于英国、澳大利亚、加拿大、新西兰、美国等,因为这些国家的农业以农场经营为主。peasant 常指非英国国家的雇农、佃农或自耕农。在我们国家,目前将农民都译为 peasant

141.from then on/since then From then on they didn't fight each other again.从那以后他们彼此就不再打架了。 He has never given up the study of English since then.从那时起他从来没间断过恐学习。 <辨析>from then on 意为“从那时起”,通常与一般过去时连用,指过去某一时刻之后的任意时间。since then 意为“从那时以来”,通常与现在完成时连用,指过去某一时刻之后的连续时间。

142.at the end of/by the end of At the end of last term,we had a sports meet.在上学期结束时,我们举行了一次运动会。 By the end of last month,we had finished reading this book.到上月底,我们已读完了这本书。 <辨析>at the end of 可以指时间或处所,指时间时意为......结束时,多与过去时或将来时连用,指处所时,意为......尽头。如: At the end of this class we'll review the English songs.这节课结束时,我们将复习这支英语歌曲。 At the end of the street there is a shop.这条街的尽头有一家商店。 by the end of 用于指时间,意为......底(末)为止,通常与过去完成时连用。如: I had learned 500 English words by the end of last term.到上学期末为止,我已学了500个英语单词。

143.cross/across They crossed the mountains and reached this quiet place.他们越过大山,到达这块宁静的地方。 The boy swam across the river.那男孩游过了河。 <辨析>两者都可译为横过,但词性不同。cross 是动词,可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词。across 是介词。两者不可混淆。

144.spend/take I'm spending a lot more time on it than before. 我对此所花的时间比以前要多得多。 It takes me about twenty minutes to walk from my home to the school.我从家到学校大约要走20分钟。 <辨析>两者都可解作花费(时间或金钱),但在用法上不区别。spend 的主语必须是人,常用于 spend time (money) on sth. spend time(money) in doing sth.结构,介词 in 可省去。如: Our teacher has spent a lot of money on books.我们的老师花了不少钱买书。 She spent two hours writing the letter.写这封信她花了两个小时。(writing 不宜改为 to write) take 常用 it 作形式主语,进行的某种活动用动词不定式表达,置于句末作真正主语,当某种活动是由某人进行时,将某人放在 take 之后。如: It took us three days to finish the work.完成这项工作我们花了3天时间。 It took me two yuanto buy the magazine.买这本杂志我花了2元钱。 take 的主语也可以是某种活动,后接宾语或双宾语。如: The work will take three weeks.这项工作要花费三个星期。 The journey took me two months.路上花了我两个月。

145.prepare/prepare for She was preparing the new lesson with other teachers.她在和别的教师一起准备新课。 She said she was going to prepare for the trip.她说她将为旅行作准备。 <辨析>prepare 意为准备......”(make...ready)prepare for 意为......作准备”(get ready for)。试比较: The teacher is preparing the examination.教师在准备考试。 The students are prepare for the examination.学生们正在准备考试。上句指教师为考学生做准备工作,如命题等,下句指学生做好准备参加考试。

146.job/work Tom's father is asking for a job.汤姆的父亲在找工作。 I have a lot of work to do this evening.今天晚上我有许多工作要做。 <辨析>两者都可解作“工作”。job 既指固定的工作,也指临时的或某项具体的“工作”,是可数名词,可用冠词 a 修饰,也可以有算数形式。如: John lost his job.约翰失业了。 There were just not enough jobs.没有那么多的工作(可干)。 work 是个普通用词,泛指一切工作,是不可数名词。如: What work do you do?你干什么工作?

147.get on/get on with Jack is getting on very well at school.杰克在学校大有进步。 You are getting on nicely with your English.你的英语很有进步。 <辨析>get on 是不及物动词组,不可接宾语,意为进展,进步相处get on with 是及物动词词组,可接名词或代词作宾语,意为......方面有进展(进步)......相处。处。如: They got on together like old friends.他们相处得就象老朋友似的。 He got on well with his workmates.他与他的工友们相处得很融洽。 get on 还可解作骑上(马等)登上(公共汽车,火车等)。如: I get on the bus at seven every morning.我每天早上七点上公共汽车。 He got on his horse.他骑上了马。

148.ago/before They were here an hour ago.一小时前他们在这儿。 He said that his sister had been there three days before.他说他妹妹三天前来过这儿。 <辨析>这两个词都解作以前ago 是副词,表示从现在算起的若干时间以前,谓语动词常用过去时。如: He can ride a bike now,but he couldn't a few weeks ago.他现在会骑自行车,但几个星期前他不会。 before 也可用作副词,通常表示从过去某时刻算起的若干时间以前,谓语动词常用过去完成时。如: When we finally got there,the team had left an hour before.我们最后到达那里时,小队已在一小时前离开了。 before 可用在现在完成时、一般过去时的句子里,不伴有具体的时间而单独使用,表示笼统,不明确的以前。如: I have read the book before.我以前读过这本书。 I met that man before.我从前碰见过那个人。 before 还可以用作传记介词或连词,用作介词时,后接某点时间。如: Please come to see me before six o'clock.请在六点以前来看我。 Where did you sister study before she joined the army?你妹妹参军前在哪里学习?

149.above/over There are two pictures above the blackboard.黑板上方有两张画。 Her room is over ours on the first floor.她的房间在二楼,正好是在我们头顶上的那间房。 <辨析>两者都有......的上方的意思。above 往往是泛指在某物上方,其反义词为 belowover 指在某物上方,含有垂直在上的意思,其反义词为 under。试比较: The lamp is above our head.灯在我们头上面。 The lamp is right over our head.灯就在我们头上方。有时两者可替换使用。如” The sky is over(above) our heads.天在我们的头上方。以下两种情况用 over 而一般不用 above 1)表示接触铺盖其上时。如: Over the tombs they built the pyramids.他们在坟墓上建造金字塔。 2)表示遍及遍于时。如: We have firends all over the world.我们的朋友遍天下。

150.almost/nearly The newsreel had almost finished when I got to the cinema.我到电影院时,新闻片差不多演完了。 The Great Pyramid is nearly 5000 years old.大金字塔有近5000年的历史。 <辨析>两者都可解作差不多几乎,当它们与动词、副词、形容词和名词连用时,常用通用,如上述两句中的 almost nearly 可相互替换。这两个词比较起来其含意略有不同,almost 所表示的差不多程度比 nearly 还要更接近一些。如: We're almost there.我们马上就要到了。 We're nearly there.我们快到了。 nearly 不能与 no,none,nothing,nobody,never 连用,遇到这种场合,可以用 almost。试译:几乎没有一个人歇过一下。误:Nearly no one took any rest. 正:Almost no one took any rest. almost 不可被 not 修饰,如不说 not almost almost not;表示几乎不,可用 hardly。试译。他几乎不会说英语。误:He could almost not speak English. 正:He could hardly speak English.

151.one day/some day One day,Mr Ampere went out for a walk in the street.一天,安培先生到街上去散步。 Do you hope t visit the pyramids some day?你希望将来有一天参观金字塔吗? <辨析>one day 通常指过去的某一天,也可指将来的某一天。但是 some day 只指将来的某一天,不表示过去。上述第一句中的 one day 不可换成 some day,而第二句中的 some day 则可改为 one day。

152.half a/and a half He will come back in half a month.半月之后他将回来。 She's one and a half metres tall.她一米半高。 <辨析>half a and a half 都含有的意思。half a 修饰名词单数,说明是那个名词所指量的一半。half a 是英国英语,a half 是美国英语。如: The whale can stay under the water for more than a half hour.鲸能在水下呆半个多小时。 and a half 用于前面已经说出一个数字,再加后面那个名词的一半。如: I have spent two and a half years at the school.我在这个学校已经两年半了。 and a half 后修饰的应该是复数名词,这个名词也可放在 and 前面。如 two years and a half 注意:表示一个半......,两个半......”等,不可说“one and half a...,two and half a ...”

153.be made of/be made from The Great Pyramid is made of 2300000 huge stones.大金字塔是用二百三十万块巨石砌成的。 Wine is made from grapes.葡萄酒是葡萄汁酿制而成的。 <辨析>be made of be made from 都可解作......制成的,前者表示制成的东西仍保持材料的物质原态(起物理上的变化),后者表示制成的东西已完成失去了材料的原态(起化学上的变化)。试比较: The desk is made of wood.桌子是木头做的。 This kind of paper is made from wood.这种纸是木头做的。

154.leave/forget I left the book at home.我把书忘在家里了。 Don't forget the ticket.别忘了带票。 <辨析>这两个动词都可表示遗忘leave 常和表示地点的副词或短语连用,表示把某物忘在某处forget 一般不与地点状语连用。

155.be afraid for/be afraid of/be afraid I am afraid for your health.我为你的身体担心。 Don't be afraid of the elephant.it won't hurt you.不要怕象,它不会伤害你的。 He was afraid to leave his home.他不敢离开自己的家。 I am afraid that I can't help him with his lessons today.我恐怕今天不能帮助他复习功课了。 <辨析>be afraid for 解作......担心be afraid of 意为害怕......”,后接名词或动名词。be afraid 后面可接不定式,意为怕而不敢或不愿。试比较: She was afraid of waking her husband up.她怕吵醒她的丈夫。(可能因为他生病或需要多休息) She was afraid to wake her husband up.她不敢吵醒她的丈夫。(可能因为她害怕他不高兴或生气) be afraid 后面还可接 that 引导的从句(that 经常省略),表示恐怕、想,认为等意思。如: I am afraid you are mistaken.我想你错了。

156.by/till(until) I'll be back by 5 o'clock.我最迟五点回来。 I'll stay here till next month.我要在这待到下个月。 <辨析>这两面三刀个词都可解作“到......时为止”。by 是介词,含有“不迟于,在......时之前”的意思(=not later than),用来谈将来某一时刻会发生或在此以前会发生的动作,含有过去完成时态的句子也常用到它。如: By daybreak the fisherman had cast his net three times.拂晓前渔夫已撒网三次。 till(until) 含有“直到......之时”的意思,用来谈目前正在进行而将来某一时刻将停止的事情或情况,它既可用作介词也可用作连词。如: They will go on working till dawn.他们将继续干到天亮。 I'll wait here till father comes back.我要在这里一直等到父亲回来。

157.next/the next They will go to visit the East Lake next week.下星期他们将去参观东湖。 My sister told me that she was leaving the next week.我姐姐告诉我她下个星期离开。 <辨析>next 用于以现在为基准的下周下月明年等,不可在 next 前用定冠词。the next 用于表示某个过去或未来时间的下一周第二年。如: Next year will be difficult.明年将是困难的一年。(=the year starting next January) The next year will be difficult.往后这一年会是困难的一年。(the twelve months starting now) I shall see you next month.下个月我要去看你。 I saw him the next month.就在那以后的一个月我见到了他。 the next 还可表示一系列事物中其次一个。如: When will the next bus start?下一趟公共汽车什么时候开?注意:next week 等时间状语前面不用介词,但 the next 前则可以加 on in,如:on the next Monday,in the next week

158.wear/put on What size dress do you wear?你穿什么尺码的衣服? You'd better put on your coat.你最好穿上大衣。 <辨析>两者都可以表示穿的意思。wear 穿着戴着,强调状态,用一般现在时表示经常状态,用现在进行时表示暂时状态。如“ Now she is wearing a new dress.现在她穿着一件新衣裳。 put on 穿上戴上,强调动作。如: Put on your glasses if you can't see it clearly.如果你看不清楚,就把眼镜戴上。注意:put on 是一时的动作,不能跟表示一段时间的状语连用。试译:他整天戴着草帽。误:He put on a straw hat all day. 正:He wore a straw hat all day.

159.else/other Are there any other questions?还有别的问题吗? Is there anything else?还有别的事吗? <辨析>else other 同义,都可解作别的其它的,但它们的用法不同。else 可用作形容词或副词,主要用在 who,whose,what 等疑问代词或 nobody,nothing,somebody,something,anybody,anything 等不定代词之后作定语;作副词时,有在 where,when 等之后作状语。如: He asked what else you would like.他问你还想要什么。 Where else are you going to stay?你们还要在什么地方停留? else 可带 's。如: I took someone else's coat by mistake.我错拿了别人的外衣。 other 是形容词,用于修饰名词,须放在名词之前。如: Where are the other boys?其他的男孩在哪里? other 还可修饰代词 one one's。如: The story is more interesting than the other one.这个故事比那个更有趣。

160.find/find out When I went into the room,I found John there.我走进房间时,发现约翰在那儿。 When he was a child,he liked to find out how things worked.当他是个孩子时,他就爱弄明白各种事情的来龙去脉。 <辨要>find 通常指发现,找到有形的东西,也可指偶然发现某物或某种情况。如: Where did you find the pen?你在哪儿找到了这本钢笔? I found a note on my desk when I came in.我进来时发现书桌上有张便条。 find out 意为找出查明发现,多指用探索、观察而发现,通常带有经过困难曲折的含义,后面接用无形或隐藏的东西。如: How can you find out who took the book?你怎能认出谁拿了这本书? Will you try to find out when the train leaves?请你设法打听一下火车什么时候开,好吗? find out 也可用作不及物短语动词。如: Now people could find out and she would never be able to give a concert again.那么人们就会发现真相,她再也不能举行音乐会了。

161.send/send for I have thought about it.I will send you.我考虑过了,我将派你去。 Once her mother was ill and she sent for a doctor.有一次她母亲病了,她派人请了一位医生。 <辨析>send 含有“派,寄,送”的意思,是及物动词,后接宾语或双宾语。如: I have sent him several letters.我已经寄给他好几封信了。 Did you send it to him or to me?你是送给他的,还是送给我的? send for 意为“派人去请,派人去拿”(send sb.to fetch),不是本人去请或拿,其宾语不限于人,也可以是物。如: I have sent for some cakes.我已派人去买糕点了。

162.play/play with(2) The children are playing basketball.孩子们在打篮球。 The children are playing with a basketball.孩子们在玩(一个)篮球。 <辨析>play 可用作及物动词,后接球类名词(不用冠词),意为打(踢)球,还可接乐器名词(须用定冠词),意为弹,拉,演奏。如: Come and play footballl.来踢足球吧。 Did you hear Xiao Li playing the piano last night?昨晚你听到小李弹钢琴吗? play with 是个固定短语,表示玩(弄)......”。如: Don't play with the cat any more.别再玩那只猫了。 We all have played with snow and ice. 我们都玩过雪和冰。

163.go on/go on with The meeting went on till midnight.会议一直持续到深夜。 Dr Bethune still went on with his work.白求恩大夫仍在继续工作。 <辨析>这两个动词短语都可以表示继续go on 是不及物短语动词,不可跟名词或代词作宾语。go on 后面可接动词-ing 形式,表示继续做某事一直做某事。如: Father said that it was late and he told me not to go on writing.爸爸说时间很晚了,叫我不要继续写了。 go on with 也作继续做某事解,后接名词或代词,与 go on doing sth.同义。如: The teacher came into the classroom,but the students went on with their talk.(=The teacher came into the classroom,but the students went on talking.)老师走进了教室,学生们及在继续讲话。

164.join/jion in/take part in He says he's going to join the air force.他说他要参加空军。 May I join in the game?我可以参加这个游戏吗? Will all of you take part in the party?你们都参加这个聚会吗? <辨析>三者都可译成参加,但用法有异。join 意为加入某一种组织,成为其中一员join 后面还可接表示人的名词或代词,表示加入到某人或某些人的活动中去。如: My uncle joined the Party in 1978.我叔叔是1978年入党的。 We are going for a swim.Will you come and join us?我们要去游泳,你来同我们一起去好吗? join in 表示加入参与某种活动,in 之后可接名词或动名词。表示参加某人的活动可以说 join sb,in(doing)sth.。如: he joined them in the work.他同他们一起工作。 Will you join us in playing basketball?你跟我们一起打篮球好吗? take part in 表示参加某种活动,与 join in 同义,一般可以互相替换,但参加会议多用 take part in。如: The teacher took part in( joined in) our discussion yesterday.昨天老师参加了我们的讨论。 When will you take part in the meeting?你将什么时候参加会议? join in 可以不跟宾语,take part in 必须跟宾语。试译:让我参加。误:Let me take part in. 正:Let me join in.

165.interesting/interested It was quite interesting.它十分有趣。 He became very intersted in science.他对科学非常感兴趣。 <辨的>interesting 意为令人感兴趣的,可用作表语,其主语通常是物,也可用作定语,既可修饰人也可修饰物。如: My father bought me an interesting story-book yesterday.昨天爸爸给我买了一本有趣的故事书。 He is a most interesting man.他是个很有趣的人。 interested 意为感兴趣的,常用于 be(become) interested in 这一结构,其主语应该是人,而不是物,它还可以用作定语,只修饰人,不能修饰物。如: I'm interested in English.我对英语感兴趣。

166.during/for During those three months,he asked a lot of questions.在那三个月里,他问了许多问题。 The French pianist has been in China for about a month.这位法国钢琴家在中国已经大约一年了。 <辨析>两者都是表示一段时间的介词。during 指“在......(时间内)”的行为或状态,与一段时间的整体连用。如:during the spring,during last year,during 1980 等,也可以和表示延续性事件的名词连用。如:during my childhood,during our stay,during his visit 等,一般不用于现在完成时的句子里。 for 指一段时间,强调时间由始至终,可译为“(时间)长达......”,一般与有长度的时间短语连用。如:for three weeks,for a long time 等,可用于现在(过去)完成时,也可用于过去时。

167.notice/pay attention to The blackboard moved a little,but he did not notice it.黑板移动了一点,但是他没有注意到。 She told us to pay attention to our pronunciation.她要我们注意(我们的)发音。 <辨析>notice 注意到察觉到之义,多着重注意的结果,后接名词或代词,带现在分词或不定式(不带 to)的复合结构,也可跟 that 从句。如: Did you notice him standing in front of the monument?你注意到他站在纪念碑前吗? One morning John noticed that his workmates were looking at him and talking in low voices.一天早晨,约翰注意到他的工友们在看着他,并小声交谈着。 pay attention to 意为注意,多着重注意的过程,后接代词、名词或动名词。如: I hope you can pay attention to your work.我希望你能注意你的工作。 Please pay attention to to spelling the word.请注意拼读这个单词。注意:pay attention to 是的 to 是介词,后面不接动词不定式。

168.at night/in the night/on the night Ever since then,the bat comes out only at night.从那时起,蝙蝠只在夜里出来。 She came back at eleven in the night.他在夜里十一点钟回来。 The story happened on the night of October 25,1980.故事发生在19801025日深夜色。 <辨析>at night 泛指在夜晚,是 in the day (白天)的反义词,night 前不用冠词。in the night 指某个夜晚,但不具体,night 前有冠词 theone the night 指一个特定的夜晚。表示特定的方法有两种:1) night 后面有 of 短语加以限制,如 on the night of that terrible storm,在那个暴风雨的夜晚;2) night 前有修饰语,如:on a cold night,一个寒冷的夜晚。

169.anyone/any one If anyone set me free I would make him very rich.谁要把我放出来,我就使他成为大富翁。 You may take any one of these apples.你可以拿这些苹果中的任何一个。 <辨析>anyone anybody 一样,表示任何人,其后不可跟 of 短语,用作主语时跟单数动词。如: Is there anyone at home?家里有人吗? any one 的意思是任何一个(人或物),用来表示只限一个,通常与 of 短语连连用。如: Any one of us can do the work.我们任何人都能干这项工作。

170.below/under The fisherman stands below the hill.那个渔夫站在小山脚下。 The ball is right under the desk.皮球就在桌子底下。 <辨析>这两个介词都含有......下面的意思。below 指位置低于某物或在某物的下方,但不一定在某物的正下方,其反义词是 above。如: Where shall I write the number,on,above or below the line?我的号码写在哪儿,写在线上,线的上面,还是线的下面? below 还可表示在下游在再远处。如: Did you see the boat below the bridge?你看见位于桥下游的那边的船了吗? under 指在某物的正下方,在垂直在下的意思,其反义词是 over。如: What's under the bridge?桥底下有什么? Now we are flying over the city,and we can see the railway station directly under us.现在我们正飞过城市的上空,在我们的正下方可以看到火车站。 under 还可用于抽象的东西,意为......(领导,管辖,统治等)之下。如: Free speech was allowed under his rule.在他的统治下允许言论自由。表示数量的多少时,两者可通用。如: He is below( under) fifty.他不到 50 岁。

171.heaven/sky I was one of the spirits in heaven.我原是天国里的一个妖怪。 What are those in the sky?天空中(飞的)是什么? <辨析>heaven 意为“天”,“天堂”,“天国”,与 earth“地界”,hell“地狱”相对,带有一定神秘意味。用单数形式,前面不用冠词 the,也可用“天空”解,但多用复数。 sky 意为“天空”,“太空”,指地球的外部空间,一般用单数,前面加 the,其前有形容词修饰时可用 the 或 a(n)。skies(复数)一般指天气,也可泛指“天空”。

172.hard/hardly They work hard.他们努力工作。 The box is so heavy that I could hardly lift it.这箱子太沉,我几乎提不起来。 <辨析>hard 可用作形容词或副词,用作形容词时意为困难的硬的勤奋的严厉的苛刻的,用作副词时,意为努力地强烈地剧烈的。如: This problem is hard.这个问题很难。 Steel is harder than wood.钢比木头硬。 Tom is a hard student.汤姆是个勤奋的学生。 The little girl looked at me and cried harder and harder.那个女孩看了看我,哭得越来越厉害。 It was raining hard.雨下得很大。 hardly 是副词,意为简直不能,多和 can 连用,接近 almost not,也可作几乎没有解,常和 any 连用,接近 almost no。如: Mum and Dad can hardly write their names.妈妈和爸爸几乎不会写自己的名字。 There's hardly any coal left.几乎没有剩余的煤了。

173.on/upon He put his handbag on the table.他把手提包放在桌上。 She sat down upon the side of the bed.她在床边上坐了下来。 <辨要>这两个介词都可解作......,常常可以通用,如上述两句中的 on upon 可以相互替换。在和某些动词结合在一起构成词组时,两者也可交替使用。如:call on(upon)拜访,look on upon...as ......当作,depend on(upon)依靠,但在句尾一般多用 upon。如: There was not a chair to sit upon.连一把坐的椅子都没有。在某些固定的习语中,这两个词不能换用,如:on the other hand 另一方面,on strike 罢工,on foot 步行,on holiday 休假,once upon a time从前。

174.because/for He isn't coming because he is very busy.他不来了,因为他很忙。 "Get down on your knees,"said the Genie,"for I'm going to kill you."“跪下,妖怪说,因为我要杀死你。” <辨析>两者都可以解作因为because 是从属连词,表示直接而明确的原因,它所引导的从句一般放在主句后面,需要强调时,也可以放在主句的前面。如: Because he is ill,he can't go to school.因为他病了,所以不能上学。(生病是不能上学的直接原因) for 是并列连词,不象 because 表示直接的原因,而是用来附带解释或说明前面一句的情况,有时它表示的理由是推测性的,它所引导的分句只可放在另一分句之后。如: The day breaks for the birds are singing.天亮了,因为鸟在叫。(表示推测)上句不能换用 because,因为天亮与鸟叫之间不存在必然的因果关系。试比较: The day breaks because the sun in rising.天亮了,因为太阳正在升起。注意:回答 why 的问句只用 because,不用 for。如: Why aren't you going?为什么你不去呢? Because I don't want to.因为我不想去。

175.ever/once Have you ever been toEngland?曾经去过英国吗? She once worked in a factory,too.她曾经也在一家工厂里工作。 <辨析>两者都可解作“曾经”,但它们各自所表示的时间含意不同。ever 表示“到现在为止以前的任何时间”,多用于现在完成时态句子,有时也可与一般过去时或过去完成时连用,主要用在否定句,疑问句,条件句以及带有否定意义的词的肯定句中。如: No man ever returned from there.从未有人从那回来过。 If you have been to Hangzhou,you must have visited the West Lake.如果你曾去过杭州,你一定去游览过西湖。 once 表示“过去某个时间”或“过去某段时间”,只用于含一般过去时态的陈述句中。如: I once went there with my brother.我曾经同我弟弟去过那里

 

第六部分 176.country/state They often tell their students about your country.他们经常给学生讲你们国家的情况。 Ours is a socialist state.我们的国家是一个社会主义的国家。 <辨析>这两个词都可以解作“国家”。country 是普通用词,通常侧重于一个国家的疆土,一个地理上的国家。如: China is a great country with a long history.中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 country 还可以表示“乡下”,“农村”,和 countryside 同义。如: My father works in the country.我父亲在农村工作。 state 所指的国家常侧重于国家政权或政府,在美国,也常被用来指各州。如: Railways in China belong to the state.中国的铁路属于国家。

177.except/excepy for All of them began to write the numbers down except one boy.除了一个男孩以外,所有的孩子都开始把一个个数字写下来(演算)。 Excepy for a few words,I do not know any French at all.除了几个单词外,我一点也不懂法语。 <辨要>两者都含有......以外的意思。except 指从同类的人或事物中除去一部分。如: Everyone knows it except you.除了你以外,别人都不知道。(everyone you 都指人,属同类) We go to school every day except Sunday.除星期天以外,我们每天都上学。(every day Sunday 都表示时间,属同类) except for 指所除去的和所提到的并非同类事物。如: He is a good student except for his carelessness.他是个好学生,只不过有点粗心。(he carelessness 不是同类)

178.kill/shoot/murder Why do you want to kill me?你为什么要杀我? He was shot on November 19,1915.他于19151119日被枪杀。 One day a man was murdered.一天,有一个人被谋杀了。 <辨析>kill 意为杀死,笼统的表示杀的事实,宾语可以是表示人的名词或代词,也可以是表示物的名词工代词。如: He was killed in the battle.他战死沙场。 Don't let the heavy frost kill the crops.别让寒霜冻死庄稼。 shoot 意为射中击毙。如: The traitor was shot to death.这个卖国贼被处决了。表示以某人或某物为目标进行射击,但不一定射中时,应用 shoot at。如: John shot at the hare,but it ran away.约翰向兔子射击,但兔子跑了。 murder 意为谋杀,宾语一般是表示人的名词或代词,通常指有谋划的非法杀害。如: They found a excuse and said that Joe had murdered a person.他们找到了一人借口,说乔曾经谋杀了一个人。

179.call/call on Please call me at seven o'clock.请在七点钟叫我。 Last Sunday we called on the old scientist.上星期天,我们拜访了这位老科学家。 <辨析>call 多用作及物动词,后跟表示人的名词或代词做宾语,可解作唤醒某人去找(叫)某人,在美国英语中,解作找电话给某人call 还可表示(名)叫,称(呼),后面跟复合宾语结构。如: We'll call the baby Tom.我们将给孩子取名为汤姆。 call on 意为拜访号召。如: Many of these songs called on the workers to take up the struggle.其中有许多歌曲是号召工人们起来斗争的。注意:call on 后接指人的词,如果是指地方的词,应用 call at。如: Last week we called at Teacher Li's house.上星期我们到李老师家探望。

180.found/founded When was the Chinese Communist Party founded?中国共产党是什么时候成立的? Where was the pen found?这支钢笔在哪里找到的? <辨析>found 意为成立建立,是规则动词,它与 find(找到)的过去时和过去分词 found 相同,两者不可混淆。

181.die/dead/death He died last year.去年他死了。 Joe Hill isn't dead.乔.希尔没有死。 He was tried and sentenced to death.他受到审讯,并被判处死刑。 <辨析>die 是不及物动词,一般指因生病,负伤等原因而死,是一时的动作,有能和表示一段时间的状语连用。试译:他爷爷去世两年了。误:His grandfather has died for two years. 正:He grandfather died two years ago. die 用于进行时态,表示“即将死去”。如: Please come quickly,your friend is dying.请快来,你的朋友快要死了。 dead 是形容词,强调状态,可用作表语和定语。如: He is dead,but his name will live forever in our hearts.他虽然死了,但他的名字将永远活在我们心中。 It doesn't look like a dead fox.看来它不像一只死狐狸。 death 是抽象名词,只用作主语或宾语。如: His death is weightier than Mount Tai.他的死比泰山还重。

182.beautiful/good-looking Those three parks are all very beautiful.这三个公园都很美丽。 Joe Hill was a tall,thin,good-looking man..希尔面容英俊,身材颀长。 <辨析>两者都表示beautiful 是个使用非常广泛的词,可用于人、物、景色等多方面,形容人时一般用于女性,但用于修饰小孩时,男女都可。如: There are many beautiful flowers in the park.公园里有许多美丽的花。 She is a beautiful woman.她是位美丽的女人。 What a beautiful little boy(girl)!多么好看的小男孩(女孩)! good-looking 表示外貌好看的,常用来修饰男子美。如: He is a good-looking fellow.他是位英俊的小伙子。

183.put up/set up/build They will put up a monument in the middle of the park.他们将在公园中心兴建一座纪念碑。 He stopped and set up his tent.他停下来搭帐篷。 A new road has been built in my home town.我的家乡修了一条新路。 <辨要>三者可解作修建,建造,如:build(set up,put up) a hospital(a school,factory,new house,etc.)修建医院(学校、工厂、新房等)。但是,所修建之物低于或不高于地面时,应用 build,如上述第三句通常不用 put up set up 替换。put up set up 都有搭起升起的意思。上述第二句中也可用 put upset up 还有建立,创立的意思。

184.happen/take place This happended in London.这事发生在伦敦。 Great changes have taken place in the last two years.近两年来发生了巨大的变化。 <辨析>两者都可解作发生happen 是普通用词,指具体客观事物的发生,往往带有偶然的意味,如果表示某人发生了什么事或某物发生了什么情况,用 happen to sb.or sth.。如: Jack is telling the teacher what happened.杰克正在向老师报告刚发生的事。 Has anything happened to him?他出了什么事? take place 是按意图或计划进行的,没有偶然的意味,war(战争),revolution(革命)等事件的发生宜用 take place。这个短语还常用来表示举行。如: The October Revolution took place in 1917.十用革命发生在1917年。 When will the meeting take place?会议将在什么时候举行?注意:两者是不及物动词,不可用于被动语态中。

185.be on strike/go on strike They are sitll on strike.他们仍在罢工。 The workers went on strike yesterday.昨天工人们举行罢工。 <辨析>be on strike 意为在罢工,表示状态,含有进行的意味,可以同表示一段时间的状语连用。如: They have been to strike for more than a week.他们罢工已有一个多星期了。 go on strike 意为举行罢工开始罢工,是终止性动词词组,不能同表示一段时间的状语连用。如: No rubbish has been collected since the dustmen went on strike three weeks ago.自从垃圾清运工在三周前举行罢工以来,垃圾就没有清除过。注意:go on strike 不可译成继续罢工,要表达这一意思,应该说 go on with strike。如: We decided to go on with strike.我们决定继续罢工。

186.people/person/human People have been warned to be careful of rats.人们已得到通知,要当心老鼠。 Do you know that the song was written about a real person?你知道这首歌写得是一个真人吗? Computer can't completely take the place of humans.计算机不能够完全代替人。 <辨析>people 意为“人”,“人们”,着重指集体而言,没有复数形式,但用作复数名词。如: There are lots of people in the sports-ground.操场上有许多人。 person 着重指个别人而言,可用单数或复数。如: Several persons called while you were out.你不在的时候有几个人来过。表示多数人时可用 people,也可用 persons,一般来说 people 用于 large groups,person 用于一定的,确切的 small number,如“几百万人”应该说 millions of people,“两个人”最好说 two persons。 human 意为“人”,“人类”,与动植物或其它东西相对而言,其复数形式不指各个人种。human 还可用作形容词,意为“人的”,“人类的”,如:human history 人类历史。

187.and/or(2) Come early tomorrow,and you will see him.明天早点来,你就会见到他。 Come early tomorrow,or you won't see him.明天早点来,否则你就会见不到他。 <辨析>上述两句都是祈使句+陈述句的句型。陈述句前既可用 and 也可用 orand 意为那么,用于陈述句的句意是肯定的,or 意为要不然否则,用于陈述句的句意是否定的。

188.hanged/hung You will be hanged as a spy early tomorrow morning.明天清早你将作为一个间谍被绞死。 The wet cloths anr often hung up near a fire.湿衣服经常挂在靠近火炉的地方。 <辨析>hanged hung 是动词 hang 在两种词义下的不同词形的变化。作为......绞死解时,是及物动词,常用在被动语态里,其过去式和过去分词都是 hanged。如: The murderer was hanged to death.凶手被绞死了。当作悬挂......”解时,其过去式和过去分词都是 hung,可作及物动词也可以作不及物动词。如: He hung a picture on the wall.他把一张画挂在墙上。 A full moon hung in the sky.圆圆的月亮挂在天空。

189.raise/rise We raise their temperature high enough. 我们把温度提高到足够的高度。 Soon steam can be seen rising from the wet cloths.很快就能看见水蒸气从湿衣服上冒出来。 <辨析>这两个动词都有升高的意思。raise 是及物动词,可用于被动语态,过去式和过去分词都是 raised,意为举起提高,如抬头、举手(目、帽、石头、重物等)。还可用作比喻,如提高政治觉悟(生活水平、地位、名誉、声音等)。如: This lid is too heavy,I can't raise it.这盖子太沉,我提不起来。 We must raise the living standard of the people.我们必须提高人民的生活水平。 rise 是不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,过去式是 rose,过去分词是 risen,它可以表示上升,升起,起身,起立,起床,上涨,(日、月、星等)升到地平线上。如: The sun rose red.太阳升起红艳艳。 We rose when out teacher entered the classroom.老师走进教室时,我们都起立。

190.news/information I have some good news for you.我有好消息告诉你。 During the night the computer works ont eh information from all the sales that day.夜间,计算机处理当天售货的全部信息。 <辨要>news 意为新闻消息,指事件发生后不久的消息,特别是指报纸、广播、电视中发布的消息,不一定是大新闻,但突出在上,如: They were listening to the news over the radio.他们在收听新闻广播。 information 意为消息情报信息知识等,指通过观察、学习、阅读或交谈得到的资料、知识等,突出在内容上,而不强调其。如: So far I have no information about it.到目前为止,我还没有得到这方面的消息。 Another computer programme had information about different illnesses.计算机另一种程序贮存有各种不同疾病的信息。注意:news information 都是不可数名词,前面不可用 a(n) one,也不用 many 修饰,在句中作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。试译:我得到了许多消息。误:I have got many informations. 正:I have got much informations. 这个消息不是真。误:The news are not true. 正:The news is not true. 我将告诉你一个好消息。误:I'll tell you a good news. 正:I'll tell you a piece of good news.

191.faraway/far away The computer will probably touch the lives of people in faraway villages.计算机将会渗透到遥远乡村人们的生活中去。 I know the moon is far away from the earth.我知道月亮离地球很远。 <辩析>faraway 是形容词,意为“遥远的”,用作前置定语。far away 意为“很远”,“遥远”,在句中用作表语、状语和后置定语。

192.take place/take one's place/take sb.'s place/take the place of The story took place in 1954.这故事发生在1954年。 When the bell rang,the students took their places.铃声一响,学生们都坐在自己的座位上。 Comrade Wang took our teacher's place to give us English lessons.王同志代替我拉的老师给我们上英语课。 Tractors have taken the place of horses.拖拉机代替了马。 <辨析>take place 意为发生举行。(其用法详见184条)take one's place 意为入座占好位置,其所有格须和短语的(逻辑)主语一致。take sb.'s place 意为代行某人的职责,其所有格不须和短语的(逻辑)主语一致,可以是别人。take the place of 意为代替职务(或工作等),后接人或物,接人时与 take sb.'s place 可以换用。如: We had no one to take the place of John.(We had no one to take John's place)我们没有谁代替约翰的工作。

193.finally/at last/in the end Finally he went to see the famous man himself.最后,他亲自访问了这位名人。 Did the man in the shop understand him at last?这位店员最后理解他的话了吗? When a piece of ice is taken into a warm room,it becomes smaller and smaller,until in the end it disappears completely.当把一块冰拿到温暖的屋子里时,它就慢慢的变小,直到最后完全消失。 <辨的>三者可以解作最后finally 表示基本一动作发生的顺序是在最后,无感情色彩,只用于过去时,它在句中的位置以在句首时为多。at last 表示经过一定曲折之后某事才发生,强调努力的后果,带有较强的感情色彩,须用过去时。in the end 表示事物发展的自然顺序的终结,有时可与 finally 互相换用,in the end 还可用来预测将来,finally at last 没有这种用法。如: I hope that everything will turn ort all right in the end.我希望一切最终都会顺利。

194.a great deal/a great deal of Today the computer is used a great deal in many ways.现在计算机在多方面得到广泛的应用。 He needs a great deal of money.他需要一大笔钱。 <辨析>a great deal 意为大量的很多的,用作程度状语,修饰动词,相当于 very mucha lot,也可用来修饰形容词的比较级,意为非常“......得多。如: He talked a great deal,but did little.他说得多,做得少。 She is a great deal better today.她今天好多了。 a great deal of 意为大量的,通常修饰不可数名词,所修饰的名词用处主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如: A great deal of work has been done.做了大量的工作。

195.aloud/loud/loudly It's good to read aloud often.经常大声朗读是有益的。 If you do know,answer in a loud enough voice so that.all the class may hear.如果你的确知道,应用足够大的声音来回答,使全班同学都能听见。 He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public.他不当众大声谈笑。 <辨析>这三个词都与大声响亮有关。aloud 是副词,重点在出声,能让人听见,但声音不呈不定期很大,常用在读书或说话上,只有修饰 cry,shout,call 等动词时,才有大声的意思。通常放在动词之后。如: He callled aloud for help.他高声喊叫求救。注意:aloud 没有比较级。 loud 可用形容词或副词,作形容词时,可用定语或表语。用作副词时,一般指谈笑方面,常与 speak,talk,laugh 等动词连用,多用于比较级,须放在动词之后。如: Suddenly we heard a loud cry.突然我们听到一声大叫。 She told us to speak a little louder.她叫我们大点声说。 loudly 是副词,与 loud 同义,有时两者可替换使用,但往往含有令人讨厌或打扰别人的意思,可位于动词之前或之后。如: They were talking loudly,I could hear them.我听见他们在高声交谈。(句中的可代之以)

196.a paper/a piece of paper He bought a paper just now.刚才他买了一张报纸。 Please give me a piece of paper.请给予我一张纸。 <辨析>paper 既是可数名词又是不可数名词。用作可数名词时,意为“报纸”,“论文”,“作业”,“试卷”。用作不可数名词时,意为“纸”。表示“数量”,“张”时用 a piece (sheet) of 或 two pieces (sheets) of。

197.fill/full The bottle is filled with water.这只瓶子装满了水。 The sky is full of stars.天空布满了星星。 <辨析>这两个词都有的意思。fill 多为及物动词,表示使......,有“fill...with...”“fill...up”等搭配形式,表示......充满时需用被语态。如: He then filled a cup with some of the kerosene.接着他用煤油装满瓶子。 Hey,fill the car up,quick!嘿!给汽车加满油,快点! full 是形容词,多作表语,表示主语所处的状态,常见于 be full of 结构。如: The schoolbag is full of books.书包里装满了书。 He drew in an old basket full of sand.他打上来一个灌满泥沙的旧篮子。注意:be filled with be full of 同义,可以互换,但后面连用的介词不可混淆。试译:屋里挤满了人。误:The room is full with people. 正:The room is full of people. 正:The room is filled with people.

198.none/no one None of you watched carefully enough.你们谁也没有很仔细的观察过。 No one likes a person with bad manners.没有人喜欢不礼貌的人。 <辨析>none 用于表示对三个或三个以上的人或事物的否定,意为没有什么人没有什么东西,用作主语和宾语,作主语时,谓语动词可以是单数,也可以是复数。如: None of my friends ever come(s) to see me.我的朋友们谁也不来看我。 I liked none of the books.这些书我全不喜欢。 no one 意为无一人没有人,与 none 的区别是:none 既指人又指物,后面可以接 of 短语,no one 只指人(=nobody),后面不能跟 of 短语。试译:昨天我们当中没有人参加会议。误:No one of us attended the meeting yesterday. 正:None of us attended the meeting yesterday.

199.help/help with They helped (to) het in the crops.他们帮助收庄稼。 It's good to help with the bousework.帮助做点家务很好。 <辨的>两者都可以表示帮助help 多用于及物动词,后跟名词或代词,也可跟不定式或跟带不定式的复合结构。如: Some students are helping her.一些孩子正在帮助她。 Sports help people (to) live happily.运动有助于人们生活愉快。注意:help 后面的不定式可带 to,也可不带 to,但在被动结构中 to 不能没有。如: The old woman was helped to get on the bus.有人帮助这位老太太上公共汽车。 help with 意为帮助干某事,表示帮助某人做某事,可用 help sb.with sth.。如: During busy seasons they help with field work.农忙季节他们就帮助干农活。 John asked me to help him with his lessons this evening.约翰要我今天晚上帮他复习功课。

200.by the way/in one's way/on one's way By the way,where's Li Ping?顺便问一个,李平在什么地方? This box stands in my way.这只箱子挡着我的道。 I met him on my way to school.在上学的路上,我遇见了他。 <辨析>by the way 的意思是顺便说附带说in one's way 的意思是挡住去路妨碍着

on one's way 的意思是在路上,后接介词 to 表示......去的路上。后两个短语中的 one's 也可换成定冠词 the

 

第二刊 第一部分 1.force/make He was forced to leave his homeland for political reasons.由于政治原因,他被迫离开了自己的祖国。 How did the bat make the birds believe that he was on their side? 蝙蝠是怎样使鸟儿们相信他是站在他们这边的? <辨析>两者都可以作“迫使”解。force 表示用武力或威胁迫使某人做某事,宾语发出的动作常带有不情愿的意味。这种动作可以用带 to 的不定式表示,也可以用动名词表示。用动名词时,要与介词 into 连用。例如:We forced him to go(into going).我们迫使他去。make 的用法比较广泛,它所表示的强迫性有时不如 force 强,其宾语之后的不定式要省去 to。但当 make 用于被动语态时,所省去的 to 要补上。例如:I was made to go there alone.我被迫一个人去那里。

2.before long/long before Before long he had to move on again.不久他不得不再迁移。 She said that she had heard of it long before.她说,她老早就听说过这件事。 <辨析>before long 与 long before 是词义完全相同的两个词组。before long 意为“很快”,“不久”(soon,after a short period of time),其中 before 是介词,long 是名词。常在句中作状语,多与动词的过去时或将来时连用。如:I'll go to Shanghai before long.不久我要去上海。long before 意为“很久以前”,其中 long 是副词,long before 单独使用时,before 是副词。long before 后接名词、代词时,before 为介词。long before 后接从句时,before 为连词。这个词组常与过去时或过去完成时连用。跟从句时也可以用在现在时的句子中。例如:It will be long before he arrives.还要多久他才到达。

3.keep/keep on It kept raining for three days.接连下了三天的雨。 In the years that followed,Mark kept on studying English and using it .在这之后的几年中,马克继续学习和使用英语。 <辨析>keep 与 keep on 都有“不断”的意思。在表示每隔一会儿即发生的动作时,两者可互换。如:He caught cold and kept(on) coughing all the morning.他(得)感冒了,整个上午不停的咳嗽。如表示动作不间断或保持一种状态,则宜用 keep+v-ing。例如:We're keep going forward.我们将不断前进。注意:1)keep 或 keep on 后面只能接 v-ing,不能接不定式。2)两者后接表示动作的 v-ing(如:takling,writing,walking,working 和 standing 等),不能接表示静止状态的 v-ing(如 standing,sitting,lying 和 sleeping 等)。如不可以说 He kept on sleeping.

4.be sure about(of)/be sure to/be sure that He was not too sure about two things——the grammar and some of the idioms.他在语法和某些习惯用语没有很大的把握。 You are sure to understand much more than before.你一定比以前懂得多了。 He was sure (that) nobody there would steal the money.他确信那儿不会有人偷钱。 <辨析>be sure about(of) 意为“相信”、“对......有把握”,后接名词、代词或动名词,表示当事人的看法,主语必须是人。be sure to 意为“一定”,“肯定”,后接不定式,往往表示局外人的推测、评论,主语不一定是人。如:It's sure to rain tomorrow.明天一定会下雨。试比较下面两句:He is sure of living to ninety.他自信可以活到90岁。He is sure to live to ninety.他肯定可以活到90岁。be sure to 用于祈使句时,表示对对方的要求。作“务必”,“切望”解。如:Be sure to come tomorrow.你明天一定要来。be sure 接 that 从句时,意为“认为......一不会”,主语必须是人,that 可以省略。be sure 后面还可接 whether 或 where,when,who 等引导的名词性从句。这时主句通常是否定形式。如:I am not sure where I left my notebook.我不能确定我把笔记本忘在什么地方了。

5.go on to do/go on doing He went on to talk about the world situation.他接着谈了世界形势。 Dr Bethune went on working throughout the night.白求恩大夫整个夜晚都在做手术。 <辨析>go on to do 意为“停止以前做的事,接着做另一件事”;go on doing 意为“继续做以前的事”。试比较:Let's go on to discuss another question.我们接着讨论另外一个问题吧。Let's go on discussing the question.咱们继续讨论这个问题吧。此外,这两个短语在动作的时间概念上也有所不同,go on to do 指一个时刻的动作,go on doing 指一段时间的动作。例如:I went on to read Lesson Two at half past two.两点半钟我接着读第二课。I went on reading Lesson Two for half an hour.第二课我连续不断地读了半个小时。

6.advice/advise Marx gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language.马克思对如何学习外语提出了一些意见。 I would advise you to earn enough money to travel round the world.我建议你挣些钱去做环球旅行。 <辨析>两者的基本意思都是“劝告”,“建议”。advice 是不可数名词,前面不能有不定冠词 a,后面也不能加复数词尾-s。“一项建议”是 a piece of advice,不可以说 an advice。“一些(许多、多项)建议”是 some (much,pieces of) advice。advise 是动词,常用作及物动词,间或用作不及物动词。用作及物动词时,后接名词、代词,也可跟含有不定式的复合宾语。还可跟 that 从句,这时从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。如:I advise that you (should) go at once.我劝你马上就去。

7.consult/look up At the same time,consult dictionaries and memorize grammatical rules.同时,要查字典,记语法规则。 When you don't know how to pronounce a new word,you must look it up.当你不知道一个生词怎么念时,必须查字典。 <辨析>两者都可以表示“查”。consult 意为“查阅”(refer to),后接表示“词典或参考书”的名词作宾语。look up 的意思是“在词典或参考书中查找”(find a word,phrase,etc.in a dictionary or reference book)。但有时 look up 后面也跟表“词典”、“参考书”的名词,与 consult 通用。如:Did you look up a dictionary for the meaning of the word?你翻词典查过这个词的意思吗?

8.memorize/remember If you memorize a few words every day and keep on reading all the time,you are sure to do well in the English study.如果你每天记住几个单词,并坚持不断地阅读,你就一定能学好英语。 He rememberd that the word was pronounced 'plau'.他记得这词该读作'plau'. <辨析>memorize 意为“记住”、“熟记”,表示有意识地努力去记。remember 意为“记得”、“记起”、“想起”,指某件事或某个印象留存在记忆中,常指不需要有意识地追忆便可想起来。

9.close/shut/shut off Please close the windows.请把窗关上。 Shut the door,please.请把门关上。 The visionphone shuts off.电视电话机关上了。 <辨析>三者都有“关”的意思。close 与 shut 表示“关窗(门)”时,常可通用。但 shut 比 close 意味较强,close 仅指把开着的窗(门)关上的动作,而 shut 则指把窗、门关上并闩住的动作,即含有“隔绝内外”的意思。shut off 意为“关掉、停止运转”,常用于关收收音机、发电机、煤气、电视机等,既可看作不及物动词,也可看作及物动词。如:Shut the steam off——it's getting too warm in here.把暖气关上——屋里太暖和了。

10.examination/test We are going to have our term examination next week.下星期我们将进行期末考试。 We had our last physics test. 我们举行了一次物理测验。 <辨析>这两个名词都有“考试”的意思。examination 通常指比较正式的考试。如学期考试、入学考试等,可缩写成 exam,常用于口语。test 指小考或测验。还可指物理化学等(做)试验。如:The professor showed them how to do a test in the chemistry lab.教授在化学实验室里演示给他们看如何做试验。两者除表示“考试”外,也可作“(身体)检查”解。如:The doctors gave the little girl all kinds of tests (examinations).医生给小女孩做各种各样的身体检查。

11.breath/breathe The young man held his breath.那年青人屏住气息。 The doctor told Charlie to breathe deeply.大夫要查理做深呼吸。 <辨析>两者都有“呼吸”的意思,拼法仅有一个字母之差,用法也就不同。breath 是名词,与 breath 构成的短语有:hold one's breath 屏住气;out of breath 上气不接下气。breathe 是动词,用作及物动词或不及物动词。

12.because/since/as He didn't go to the meeting because he was ill.他因为生病没有去开会。 Since you have to stay home, why don't you do some shopping? 既然你得待在家里,何不(利用这时间)买买东西呢? As he didn't know much English,he got out his dictionary and looked up the word "cough".由于他英语懂得不多,于是就拿出词典查“咳嗽”这个词。 <辨析>三者是从属连词,引导原因状语从句。because 意为“因为”,它的语气最强,表达主从句间的必然因果关系。因此,回答 why 的问句,必须用 because;能放在“it is ...that...”句型中加以强调的也只能是 because 引导的从句。它所引导的从句一般放在主句后面,需要强调时,也可以放在主句的前面。如:Because he was Aristotle,the great thinker,no one questioned his ideas for almost 2000 years.因为他是亚里斯多德,是一位伟大的思想家,所以差不多2000来,无人对他的看法提出质疑。since 要比 because 的语气稍弱而没有 because 那样正式,表示无须加以说明的原因,这种原因是已知的。常常译作“既然”,所引导的从句多放在主句之前。如:Since you are busy,I'll do it for you.既然你忙,我来替你做吧。as 意为“由于”,“鉴于”,是本组中语气最弱的一个词,它所说明的原因是比较明显的,可能是已经浅露的原因。常用于日常的谈话中,它引导的从句可放在句首或主句之后。如:As it's raining,you'd better stay at home.天在下雨,你最好待在家里。

13.agree with/agree to They could not agree with one another.他们谁也不能同意谁的意见。 We agree to this plan.我们同意这个计划。 <辨析>两者都有“同意”、“赞成”的意思。agree with 后面常接表示人或意见(看法)的名词作宾语。agree to 后面一般接表示提议、办法、计划之类的名词作宾语。此外,agree with 还有“适合”、“符合”的含义。如:The climate here doesn't agree with him.他不适合这里的气候。

14.happen/happen to This story happened in London.这个故事发生在伦敦。 What happens to ice when it is placed in your hand? 冰放在你的手里将会变成什么? The first blind man happened to place his hand on the elephant's side.第一个瞎子碰巧把手放在象的一侧。 <辨析>happen 是不及物动词,意为“发生”,其主语往往是物。使用 happen 时须注意:1)不能用于被动语态,如不可以说 An accident was happened last week.上星期发生了一个事故。应将 was 删去。2)happen 是终止性动词,其现在完成时不能同表示一段时间的状语连用。如不可以说 The accident has happened for a week.事故发生已有一星期了。应改成 The accident happened a week ago.如表示“某人发生了什么事”或“某物怎么了”则用 happen to sb./sth.结构。如:Has anything happened to him? 他出什么事了?happen 还可作“碰巧”、“恰好”解,后接动词不定式或用于“it happens that...”结构。如:I happened to have no money with me(=It happened that I had no money with me.)恰好我没带钱。

15.quarrel about/quarrel with The six man sat by the roadside all day,quarrelling about the elephant.那6个人整天坐在路边,为了那头象争吵不休。 John quarrelled with his wife yesterday.昨天,约翰跟妻子争吵。 <辨析>quarrel about 意为“为(某事)争吵”,quarrel with 意为“跟(某人)争吵”。

16.at all/not at all We were not tired at all.我们一点也不累。 It's very kind of you.——Not at all.你真客气——哪里,哪里。 <辨析>at all 起加强语气的作用,可用于以下几种场合:1)用在否定句中或与含否定意义的词的连用,意为“一点也不”、“根本不”。如例1)。2)用在肯定句或疑问句中,常有较强的感情色彩,意为“究竟”、“果然”。例如:Did you speak at all?你究竟发言了没有?3)用在条件句中,意为“既然”、“(如果)真的、确实”。如:Do it well if you do it at all.既然要做就得做好。not at all 常用作客套语,是“别客气”的意思。

17.who/that People who can see somethings act just as foolishly.有时候,眼睛看得见的人也同样做出这类蠢事。 Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there?在那边看报纸的那个人是谁? <辨析>who 与 that 都可用作关系代词,引导限制性定语从句,指人。在从句中做主语时,通常两者可以互换。例如:The boy that(who) helped me is my brother.帮助我的那个男孩是我的弟弟。但下列几种情况多用 who:1)先行词为 those 时,如:Those who want to go to the cinema,please be at the school gate at four o'clock.想去看电影的人,请四点钟到达校门口。2)先行词为 one,ones 或 anyone 时,如:They said,the clothes made of this magic cloth would be invisible to anyone who was unfit for the office he held.他们说,这种魔布缝制的衣服,任何一个不称职的人是看不见的。若主句是以 who 开头的疑问句,则其后的定语从句宜由 that 引导。如例2)。

18.that/which This is the best film that has been shown this year.这是今年放过的最好的一部电影。 The earth,which goes round the sun,is called a planet.地球围绕太阳运转,被称为行星。 <辨析>关系代词 that 与 which 引导的定语从句时,都可指物,都可作主语和宾语。有时两者可互换。如:A place is a machine that(which) can fly.飞机是一种能飞的机器。但在下列情况下,只宜用 that,不用 which:1)先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如例1)。2)先行词被序数词以及 only,very,last 等修饰时。如:The first thing that we should do is (to) work out a plan.我们该的第一件事是订个计划。3)被修饰的先行词为 all,much,little 等不定代词时,如:All that can be done must be done.凡能做到的事情都必须做。4)当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时,如:They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.他们聊起他们所能记得的学校里的人和事来。5)关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,如:My home village is no longer the place that it used to be.我的故乡现在已不再是过去那个面貌了。在下列情况下只宜用 which,不用 that:1)在非限制性定语从句中,如例2)。2)当关系代词前面有介词时,如:This is the room in which we lived last year.这是我们去年住过的房间。

19.as soon as/once I'll give this note to him as soon as school is over.一放学我就把这张便条给他。 Once you see him,you will never forget him.你一旦见到他,就永远忘不了他。 <辨析>两者都可译作“刚......就......”、“一旦......就......”,表示主句动作紧接在从句动作之后 发生。as soon as 强调时间的紧接,once 则带有条件意味。试比较:As soon as the bell rang,the teacher came in.铃一响,老师就进来了(不宜用 once)。You won't find it difficult once you have understood the rule.一旦你懂得了这条规律,你就不会感到困难 了。(不宜用 as soon as)

20.receive/accept Our country sometimes uses man-made satellites to send and receive TV programmes.我国有时候使用人造卫星发送和接收电视节目。 He did experiments to test and prove an idea before he was rady to accept it.他准备接受一种观念之前,都先进行实验,对它加以验证。 <辨析>这两个词都有“接”的意思。receive 指“接到”、“收到”这一动作或事实,不涉及是否乐意或同意,可以表示收到信件、礼物、邀请,或接受教育、命令等。accept 指经过考虑“接受”下来,强调其主观上乐意“接受”。再看下例:Yesterday he received a present,but didn't want to accept it.昨天他收到一件礼物,但他并不想要。receive 还可表示“接待”、“接见”,accept 则没有这种意义。如:We often receive foreign guests.我们经常接待外宾。注意:receive 是终止性动词,其现在完成时不能同表示一段时间的状语连用。如不可以说 I have received your letter for five days.应该说 I received your letter five days ago.

21.watch/observe In the evening we watched dancing and singing in a big theatre.晚上,我们在一家大剧场看了歌舞。 He observed things carefully and never took anything for granted.他仔细观察事物,对任何事情从不想当然。 <辨析>watch 意为“看着”、“观看”、“注视”,后接名词或代词作宾语,也可接由不带 to 的不定式或现在分词构成的复合宾语,还可接连接代词或副词引导的从句,但不能接 that 从句。例如:I watched them get into the car.我看着他们上了车。He stopped to watch us working.他停一来看我们干活。Watch what I do and how I do it.看我的动作,看我是怎么做的。observe 意为“观察”(watch carefully),也可表示“注意到”(see,notice),后接名词或代词、复合宾语(与 watch 同),还可接 that 从句。例如:We observed that it had turned cloudy.我们注意到天转阴了。

22.decide/make up one's mind Jenny decided to turn the wallet in first.詹妮决定先交钱夹。 Gatyueeo made up his mind to test Aristotle's theory by doing experiments.伽利略下决心通过试验验证亚里斯多德的理论。 <辨析>两者都有“决定”、“决心”的意思。decide 着重指经过考虑、商谈或研究之后而作出决定,后跟名词、代词、动词不定式或从句,可用于被动语态中。如:Nothig is decided yet.什么都没有决定下来。make up one's mind 是与“迟疑、动摇、不知所从”等相对的说法,意味着打定主意,下了决心,后跟不定式或 that 从句,也可单独使用。有时也解作“认定了某事”。如:Aristotle had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects.亚里斯多德认定重的物体比轻的物体下落得快。

23.slow/slowly A feather falls slower than a stone.羽毛比石头落得慢。 He observed that feathers fell to the ground slowly.他观察到羽毛落地很慢。 <辨析>两者都可以用作副词,表示“慢慢地”的意思。slow 常用在动词 go,drive,speak,read 等后面或副词 how 后面。如:How slow he walks!他走得多慢啊!My watch goes slow.我的表经常慢。slowly 可置于行为动词的前后或句首。如:Mr Baker's face slowly turned red.贝克先生的脸慢慢地变红了。slow 的比较级和最高级是 slower,slowest;而 slowly 的比较级和最高级是 more slowly,most slowly。slow 还可作形容词,意为“慢的”、“迟钝的”。如:He was old and slow.他年纪大,行动迟缓。

24.pay/spend/cost He paid one yuan for the apples.他买苹果花了一元。 I spent ten yuan on the dictionary.这本词典花了我十元。 The new diamond necklace cost the Loisels thirty-six thousand francs.买新钻石项链花掉了卢瓦泽尔夫妇三万六千法郎。 <辨析>三者都有“花费(金钱)”的意思,但用法不相同。pay 与 spend 的主语应该是人,使用它们的方式分别是 sb.pays some money for sth.和 sb.spends some money on (for) sth.或 sb.spends some money in doing sth.cost 的主语总是所购买的东西,而购物的主人常常是它的间接宾语,其方式是 sth.costs sb.some money。试比较:The coat cost her twenty tuan./She spent twenty yuan on (for) the coat.She paid twenty yuan for the coat.买这件外衣她花了二十元。注意:cost 的间接宾语不能同介词连用。如不可以说 The coat cost twenty yuan for (to) her.

25.pay for/pay off/pay back We've already paid for the recorder.这架录音机我们已经付款了。 We've at last paid off all our debts.我们总算把所有的债都还清了。 They had to pay back the money they had borrowed.他们不得不归还所借的钱。 <辨析>pay for 意为“付......款”(give money for),其宾语通常是表示物件或东西的名词或代词。pay off 意为“偿还(债务等)”(pay all that is owed on a debt,etc.)。pay back 意为“归还(所借的钱)”(return money that has been borrowed),有时后面跟表示“债务”的名词,作“偿还(债务)”解。如:You ought to pay back your debts.你应当偿还你的债务。这两个短语中的 off 与 back 可与 pay 拆开使用,跟代词作宾语时,必须将代词放在两者之间。

26.because/because of He isn't coming because he is very busy.他来不了,因为他很忙。 Mathilde lived a hard life for ten years because of the lost necklace.玛蒂尔德因为那条丢失的项链,而过了十年艰苦的生活。 <辨析>because 与 because of 都是“因为”的意思,但它们的词性与用法不同。because 是从属连词,后接原因状语从句。because of 是复合介词,后接名词(代词)或动名词,也可接 what 引导的从句。如:Her face went red because of what he said.他所说的话使她的脸都红了。

27.would rather/had better I would rather stay at home.我宁愿待在家里。 You had better go yourself.你最好自己去。 <辨析>would rather 表示句子主语的愿望、选择,意为“宁愿......”。如果表示“宁愿(可)......也不愿......”则用句型 would rather...than...。在 would rather 和 than 后面所连接的两个对比部分一般要一致,宜将 than 译成否定意义。如:The brave soldier would rather die than give in.那个勇敢的士兵宁死不屈。hat better 表示对别人劝告或建议,意为“最好......”。使用这两个短语须注意:1)两者都是后接动词原形。2)其否定形式分别在 rather 和 better 之间加 not。如:I would rather not tell you.我宁可不告诉你。You had better not keep the window open.你最好不要开着窗户。3)would rather 后可跟从句,从句谓语要用虚拟语气,即用过去时表示现在或将来要做的事情。如:I would rather that we stopped now.我宁可现在停下来。

28.wise/clever/bright The people had come to love him as an inspiring leader and a wise,warm-hearted,honest man.人民已把他看成一位具有感召力的领袖,看成一位聪明、热情、诚实的人而爱戴他。 The little mokey was clever.这只小猴子很聪明。 He told Tom's mother that Tom was not bright.他告诉汤姆的母亲说,汤姆并不聪明。 <辨析>这三个形容词都有“聪明的”的意思。wise 指人有广博的知识与经验,能作出正确的判断,采取明智的行动,经常用来形容伟人、领袖等。clever 应用范围较广,常用来形容一般人或小孩子,有“思维敏捷、聪明伶俐”的含义。bright 的意思与 clever 基本相同,常用于口语中,它一般用来形容小孩。

29.continue/last Though it was late,they continued the work.虽然天晚了,他们仍继续工作。 The war lasted four years before the North won in the end.这场战争持续了四年,最后北方取得胜利。 <辨析>comtinue 意为“继续”,可用作及物动词和不及物动词。作及物动词时,后接名词、代词、不定式或动名词。如:She continued to do(或 doing) her lessons.她继续做功课。After a short break the play continued.休息一下以后,演出继续进行。last 用作不及物动词,意为“延续”、“持续”、“维持”。多用于时间、气力、友谊、金钱、利益、食物等方面的延续。如:We're sure our friendship will last forever.我们相信,我们的友谊将会万古长表。How long did the concert last? 音乐会开了多久?

30.country/nation This country is in the west of Asia.这个国家位于亚洲的西部。 The whole nation was in deep sorrow at his death.听到他的死讯,全国陷入深深的悲痛之中。 <辨析>这两个名词都可解作“国家”,但着眼点不同。country 侧重指疆而言。nation 侧重指人民而言,因此 nation 常可译作“民族”。

31.no more than/not more than He has no more than twenty yuan in his packet.他的口袋里只有20元。 He has not more than twenyt yuan is his packet.他口袋里的钱不超过20元。 <辨析>这两个短语在意义上是不相同的。1)后面接数词时,no more than 相当于 only,是“仅仅、只不过”的意思。not more than 相当于 at most,是“至多、不超过”的意思。前者强调少,后者说明事实。试比较:There are no more than ten tickets left.只剩下10张票了(表示不多了)。There are not more than ten tickets left.剩票不超过10张(说明事实)。2)后面接比较状语从句时,no more than 的意思是“和......同样不”:,not more than 的意思是“不比......更”、“不及”。试比较:Jack is no more diligent than John.杰克和约翰一样都不勤奋。(=Neither Jack nor John is diligent.)Jack is not more diligent than John.杰克不如约翰勤奋。(=Jack is not as diligent as John.)

32.in order to/in order that But people killed many mountain lions in order to protect the deer.但是人们为了保护鹿,杀死了许多美洲狮。 They started out early in order that they might get there in time.他们很早动身,以便及时到达那里。 <辨析>两者都作“为了”、“以便”解。in order to 后接不定式短语,表示目的,既可位于名首,也可位于句末。in order that 后接从句常置于句末,表示目的,从句中常用情态动词 may(might),can(could)等。

33.ought/should You ought to start at once.你应当立刻出发。 What should we learn form Marx in mastering a foreign language? 要掌握一门外语,我们应当向马克思学习些什么? <辨析>ought 和 should 都可以解作“应当”、“应该”,用来表达职责和义务,或提出劝告,在很多场合两者可以互换。只是 should 表示的主观看法强些,ought 则更多反映客观情况。ought 后面需接带 to 的不定式,与其他情态动词一样,用于各种人称,没有词形变化。应注意:ought to 与 should 加原形动词用于指现在或将来的动作,不能用于指过去的动作。要表示过去应该做而实际未做的事,应用 ought to (should)+have+过去分词。试译:你昨天本应写这封信。误:You ought to (should) write the letter yesterday.正:You ought to (should) have written the letter yesterday.

34.how soon/how long/how often He sent another official to find out how soon the cloth would be ready.他又派了一位官员去看看还要多久布料才能织好。 He asked the doctor how long it had taken him to finish the operation.他问医生动这个手术花了多长时间? How often does your father let you watch TV? 你爸爸让你多久看一次电视? <辨析>how soon 用来提问别人要“多快”能做好某事,所提问的部分一般是“要过多久以后”或“即刻”等意义的时间状语(如 in two weeks,before long,after March,at once 等),多用于含将来意义的句子中。how long 用来提问“多长时间”,所提问的部分一般是“一段时间”的时间状语(如 for three days,since last week 等)。how often 意为“是否经常”、“多长时间一次”,所提问的部分一般是表示频度的副词或词组(如 sometimes.seldom,every day,once a week 等)。

35.officer/official “use your knife,man!”ordered the British officer nearby.“嗨,用刀子!”旁边的英国军官命令到。 The official could see nothing.这位官员什么也看不见。 <辨析>officer 通常指“(海、陆、空)军官”或“警官”。如:His uncle was an officer in the Red Army.他叔叔是红军军官。official 一般指政府的文职官员,包括行政人员或高级职员。如:His father is a bank official.他父亲是银行高级职员。

36.wide/widely The poor old Prime Minister opened his eyes wider and wider.可怜的老丞相,惊得眼睛越睁越大。 English is probably the most widely used at those meetings.在那些会议上,英语可能用得最广泛。 <辨析>两者都可以用作副词。wide 通常表示范围或程度的极点,用于修饰作表语的形容词。如 wide awake(完全清醒)。widely 通常表示范围或程度的广大,用于修饰过去分词,如 widely read 阅读广博。两者都可以修饰动词,wide 一般位于动词之后,widely 可位于动词之前或之后。wide 的比较级和最高级是 wider,widest;widely 的比较级和最高级是 more widely,most widely。

37.most/a most/the most It's most beautiful! 真是美极了。 This is a most interesting book.这是一本很有趣的书。 They know how to weave cloth of the most beautiful colors and designs in the world.他们会织世界上色彩最漂亮,图案最美的布料。 <辨析>句1)中的 most 意为“非常”、“很”,相当于 very,不表示最高级,只是用来加强语气,这样用时前面不加定冠词,但可以加不定冠词。如例2)。句3)中的 most 与形容词 beautiful 构成最高级形式,前面应有 the。如果 most 和副词结合构成最高级时,定冠词 the 可以省略。如:She writes (the) most careful of the three.三人中她写字最仔细。试比较:He asked us a most important question.他问了我们一个非常重要的问题。He asked us the most important question on the subject.他问了我们有关那个学科的一个最重要的问题。

38.point to/point out They pointed to the empty looms and asked him if he liked the design and the colors.他们指着空荡荡的织布机问他是否喜欢布料的花纹和色彩。 When she finished playing the piano,Liszt pointed out a few small mistakes.她弹完琴后,李斯特给她指出了几个小错误。 <辨析>point to 意为“指向”、“指着”。point out 意为“指出”,其中 out 是副词,它后面的宾语若是代词,必须放在 out 之前。如:We'll correct out mistakes,whoever points them out.不论谁指出我们的错误,我们都要改正。

39.put on/wear/have on/dress Then he put on his coat and hat and went to a chemist's shop.于是,他穿上外衣,戴上帽子,到一家药店去了。 Wei Feng is wearing a red shirt today.魏芳今天穿着一件红衬衫。 But he has nothing on.但他什么也没有穿。 The cheats pretended to dress him in his new clothes.骗子们假装给他穿新衣服。 <辨析>这四个词语都与“穿”或“戴”有关。put on 是“穿上”、“戴上”,强调动作,是终止性短语动词,不能跟表示一段时间的状语连用。wear 是“穿着”、“戴着”,强调状态,用一般时表示状态,用进行时表示暂时状态,用完成时表示动作所达到的程度。如:He has worn his coat to rags.他把衣服穿得破烂不堪。have on 与 wear 同义,但 have on 一般不用于进行时态。dress 既可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词。用作及物动词时,常以人作宾语,意为“替某人穿衣”,表示穿的动作。如果要说“给某人穿上某种衣服”时,可以说 dress sb.in...。如例4)。dress 是过去分词,可用来构成 be dressed in 结构,表示“穿着......的衣服”。如果:She was dressed in white like a nurse.她穿一身白衣服,好像一个护士。注意:dress 后面不带衣服作宾语。用作不及物动词,可作“穿上衣服”解,表示一次性动作。如:He washed,dressed and went out.他洗完脸穿好衣服就出去了。还可以解作“穿着衣服”,表示经常的状态。如:They dress well.他们的穿着都不错。

40.fit/be fit for How well the clothes fit! 这衣服多合身! He thought the Prime Minister a wise,honest man who was more fit for his office than anyone else.他认为丞相是个聪明、诚实的人,比任何人都更称职。 <辨析>fit 用作动词时,可作“适合”解,既是不及物动词又是及物动词。作不及物动词用时,常跟 will,badly 等副词连用。如:Each stone fits so well, yet they didn't have our modern machines! 每一块石头放得恰到好处,而他们(当时)并没有我们的现代化机器啊!用作及物动词时,其宾语通常是人,也可以是物。如:This shirt doesn't fit me.这件衬衣我穿不合身。The key doesn't fit the lock.这钥匙不配这把锁。fit 还可用作形容词,意为“适合的”、“能胜任的”,常用作表语,后接 for 短语或不定式。如:The weather is not fit to go out in.这种天气不宜外出。

41.please/pleased/pleasure/pleasant Dose the colth please you? 这布料合你的意吗? The Emperor was pleased by what the Minister told him about the cloth.听了大臣关于布料的禀报,皇帝非常高兴。 He tried hard to pretend to share in the pleasure of his officials.他极力装出和官员们一起分享快乐的样子。 It was cold,but the trip was pleasant.天气很冷,但旅行却令人愉快。 <辨析>这四个词都有“满意”、“高兴”的意思,但词性和用法不相同。please 是动词,可用作及物动词或不及物动词,表示“(使)高兴、满意、愉快”。pleased 是过去分词,意为“感到高兴(满意)”,其作用相当于形容词,常与 be 连用,后接 at,with,by 等引起的短语,还可接动词不定式或 that 从句。pleasure 是名词,表示“高兴”、“快乐”、“娱乐”时,为不可数名词;表示“乐趣、高兴的事”时,为可数名词。如:It is one of my greatest pleasures.它是我最大的乐趣之一。pleasant 是形容词,意为“使人感到愉快(满意)”,一般用作定语。如主语指物,也可用于表语。

42.pick/pick up They picked leaves from the trees.他们从树上摘下叶子。 The monkey picked up a big stone and quickly climbed up the tree.猴子捡起一快大石头,迅速爬上了树。 <辨析>动词 pick 是“采、摘”的意思,后跟“植物花草”名词作宾语。后跟其它名词做宾语,可解作“挑选”、“挖”、“扒窃”等意思。如:When you write,you should pick your words carefully.你写作时应十分注意措辞。He had his pocket picked.他的腰包被掏了。pick up 意为“从地区性把某物拾(拣)起来”。如:The boy saw a watch lying on the ground.he picked up and turned it in at once.这个男孩看见地上有块手表,他拾起来,立刻上交了。

43.grow/grow up/grow into The wheat is growing well.麦子长势很好。 Slowly,the little worms would grow up and spit out silk to form snow-white cocoons.慢慢地,小虫儿长大了,吐出丝来结成雪白的茧子。 All the seeds she had dropped had grown into trees.原来她扔下的种子都已长成树了。 <辨析>grow 用作不及物动词时,意为“生长”;用作及物动词时,意为“种植”。例如:We grow mainly rice.我们主要种稻子。grow 还可用作连系动词,意为“变得”。如:She found that her father had grown old.她发现父亲已经老了。grow up 的意思是“长大(成人)”。如:When I grow up I shall be a doctor.我长大后将做个医生。grow into 意为“成长为”、“发展成”。如:He has grown into(=grown up to be) a fine young man.他已长成一个英俊的小伙子。

44.in charge of/in the charge of Who is in charge of the games this afternoon? 谁负责今天下午的比赛? The operation is in the charge of Doctor Wang.这次手术由王医生负责。 <辨析>in charge of 意为“主管”、“负责”,有主动的含义,主语通常是表示人的名词或代词。in the charge of 意为“由某人负责(掌管、照料)”,有被动的含义,主语通常是表示某项工作或某个单位、部门的名词。

45.in surprise/to one's surprise "A farmer?"said the Frenchman in surprise.“农夫?”,那个法国人惊奇地说。 To her surprise,she found herself in a different world.她很惊讶地发现自己来到了一个不同的世界。 <辨析>in surprise 意为“惊奇地”。to one's surprise 意为“使某人惊奇的是”,常位于句首。类似的说法还有 to one's joy (horror,satisfaction,delight 等),为了加强表示感情的程度,名词前面还可以加上 deep,great 等形容词。如:To our great joy,our women volleyball team won the gold medal in the 23rd Olympic Games.使我们极为高兴的是,我国女排在第23届奥运会上获得了金牌。

46.till/until I can do without the raincoat till tomorrow morning.我这件雨衣,直到明天早上我不用它不都行。 They went on with their work at the empty looms until late into the night.他们继续在空织布机上干活,直到深夜。 <辨析>till 与 until 都可用作介词或连词,其用法有两种:1)用在肯定句中,意为“到......(的时候)为止”,谓语动词一般是延续性的,表示这个动词的动作一直延续到 till(until)所表示的时间为止,如上述两例。2)用在否定句中,意为“直到......才”,表示这个动词的动作直到 till(until)所表示的时间才发生。如:They are not going back to work until(till)they get more money.他们要等到增加了工资才复工。这两个词一般情况下可通用,但以下两种情况只能用 until,不可以用 till:1)用于句首时,如:Until you told me I had no idea of it.在你告诉我直前,我对此一无所知。2)在以 not 开头的短语或从句里。如:Not until eleven o'clock did we get home.我们直到11:00才回家。注意:till(until)只用来引导时间,不能用于指距离。试译:我们走到树林边。误: We walked till(until) the edge of the forest.正:We walked to the edge of the forest.

47.army/troop Where did your brother study before he joined the army? 你哥哥参军之前在哪儿学习? One column of smoke with one gunshot meant an enemy troop of about 100.一烟一炮,表示敌军有100人左右。 <辨析>两者都有“军队”的意思。army 着重指军队这个整体,有时常单指“陆军”而言。如:An Eighth Route Army man riding a horse came from the front.一位八路军战士骑着马从前线赶来。troop(常用复数形式)着重指士兵这个集体。另外,一队正在行进或准备行进的士兵也称为 troops。如:Later that afternoon the main body of troops moved up toward the front.当天下午,主力部队朝前线开来。

48.used to/be used to He used to live in Changchun.他过去住在长春。 I'm used to washing my face with cold water.我惯于用冷水洗脸。 And all this beautiful silk,she said,would be used to weave colorful clouds in heaven.她说,所有这些美丽的蚕丝都将用来织天上的彩云。 <辨析>used to 是情态动词,只有过去式,表示过去存在但现在已不存在的情况或习惯。它后面接不定式,如例1)。be used to 是“习惯于”的意思,可用于各种时态,其中 to 是介词,后接名词、代词或动名词。如例2)。应注意,有时 be used to 是动词 use用的被动语态,在这种结构里,to 是不定式符号。如例3)。

49.across/through The boy swam acorss the river.那男孩游过了河。 A railroad tunnel was dug through the mountain.在山上凿通了一条火车隧道。 <辨析>两者都有“穿过”的意思,但在用法上有所不同。across 指在一空间内从一端到另一端或成十字交叉穿过,而 through 着重指从物体中间穿过。

50.defend/protect During the Warring States,more walls were put up to defend the borders of the different kingdoms.战国时期,各诸候国为了保卫自己的边境,分别修筑了更多的边墙。 So the farmers thought of ways to protect their trees.于是农夫们想办法来保护他们的树木。 <辨析>defend 意为“防御”、“保卫”。指抵御或击退外来的威胁或攻击。protect 意为“保护”、“防止(危险、损害等)”。指采取保护措施,使之不受伤害或损伤,可用于防御风雨、寒冷、烈日、疾病或保护经济、法律、权益等


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