虚拟语气中的“过去平移法”

发表于:2012-08-24 15:19 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
                                                   虚拟语气中的“过去平移法”

 虚拟语气是英语中的一种较为特殊的语气。在学习过程中,学生往往死记硬背,生搬硬套,往往不得要领,容易出错。在这里,我们引入过去平移法的概念,把时态和语气相结合,从时间的角度解析虚拟语气,起到事半功倍的效果。

     拟语气表示一种假设、愿望、可能性不大或与事实不相符。陈述语气表一种事实或客观情况。我们把表达陈述语气的时态看成是“真实时态,把虚拟语气的时态看成虚拟时态。只要把实际时态向过去平移就得到虚拟时态,即:

虚拟时态

 

   实际时态” (←代表时态的过去平移)。

 1.  If I am a bird, I will fly to the sky. (陈述语气)

    If I were a bird, I would fly to the sky.(虚拟语气)

     weream, wouldwill

2.  If I came here yesterday, I would see Lucy.(陈述语气)

    If I had come here yesterday, I would have seen Lucy.(虚拟语气)

   had come came, would + had seen  saw = would have seen

3.  If it snows tomorrow, I will stay at home.(陈述语气)

      If it snowed/were to/should snow, I would stay at home.(虚拟语气)

snowedsnows  ,would will

²       对将来的虚拟气中,条件从句还可以用were to /should表可能性would

4. But for(要不是) your help(过去), I would be in trouble now.

    would willnow

5. If I had studied hard last term, I would not stay here now.

had studied  studied (last term), would will(now)

²     虚拟语气中,主句表可能性除了用情态动词would外,还可以could/should/might

请看典型例题:

      1.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it __________. (1995, 全国高考)

A. breaks       

B. had broken        

C. were broken     

D. had been broken                                                                                                 

答案:C. 本句用的真实时态是一般现在时态。 were brokenis broken.

      2. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Gox Library in my hometown.2002,上海高考)

A. wouldn't have fallen    

B. had not fallen    

C. should fall   

D. were to fall

答案:B. had not fallen  did not fall(at the age of seven)

 3. --The weather has been very hot and dry.

   --Yes. If it had rained even a drop, things would be much better now! And my vegetables_______(2010 ,北京高考)

     A. wouldn't die                

     B. didn't die                                                         

     C. hadn't died                  

     D. wouldn't have died

答案:Dhad rainedrained断是对过去的虚拟,would bewill benow)是对现在的虚拟。“(过去) 哪怕下一点雨,(现在)结果会更好一些。(过去)我的蔬菜也不会死去”。所以横线上应该是对过去的虚拟。would not+ had dieddied = wouldn't have died.  

²     虚拟语气是表达一种不真实的想法,表现在时态上,把真实时态想过去错位平移,就造成不真实的效果。所以把真实时态向过去平移,就可以实现虚拟语气的表达。

     其它还有与情态动词有关的虚拟语气。如:

     1.I suggest that he (should) be here on time.

     2. It's time that he went/should go to work now.

     3. It's portant that you (should) practise speaking English every day.

 

注:原创作品,请勿转载

 

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