托福主体段落结构二

发表于:2015-09-18 16:08 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

在上一次的帖子中,我给大家介绍了第一种托福段落内容的组织结构:例证论述。今天,我们再一起来学习另外一种比较常见的段落组织结构。讲解之前,请童鞋们先阅读下面这个段落:


People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties. Expressive ties are social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to other people. Through association with people who are meaningful to us, we achieve a sense of security, love, acceptance, companionship, and personal worth. Instrumental ties are social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve some goal. Occasionally, this may mean working with instead of against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance. TPO13

 

大家可能已经发现了,这个段落结构跟我们上次介绍的例证结构有很大的出入。主旨句介绍了 two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties”,接着在接下来的内容里作者分别详细地描述了expressive ties instrumental ties. 这种结构就是我们常说的总分结构 作者在主旨句概括这段要说哪些内容,接着会分别相信的描述各个内容。下面这张图能更形象的概括这种结构:(看这里看这里!!

 


托福阅读中有很多这种结构的段落:

比如:

 Desertification is accomplished primarily through the loss of stabilizing natural vegetation and the subsequent accelerated erosion of the soil by wind and water. In some cases the loose soil is blown completely away, leaving a stony surface. In other cases, the finer particles may be removed, while the sand-sized particles are accumulated to form mobile hills or ridges of sand.


这段内容是一个典型的总分结构,即point + illustration。观点很明显是说沙漠化的原因是植被消失,土壤侵蚀。接下来的论证时进一步补充说明植被消失之后,土壤可能会碰到的状况,分成了两种情况。一种情况松散的土壤完全被吹走,还有一种情况小颗粒被带走,沙子大小的颗粒聚集成沙山,进而逐步累积形成沙漠化。

看完这些例子,那么问题来了:我们肿么去判断这个段落是总分结构捏?两种方法:一.看主旨句只是否含有Categories; classification; groups; parts; types; characteristics; elements; kinds; sorts; ways; classes 这些信号词;二.正文中是否有表示分类和并列的连接词的连接词 in one case/in another case; also; in addition; some/other 等。总之这些词都可以帮助我们判断这段是不是总分结构。


阅读时候肿么去处理这种段落捏?这里分两种情况:第一如果主旨句指出了分论点的内容,我们只需要精读主旨句就ok啦。如上面那个例子,在主旨句就提及了沙漠化的原因是植被消失和土地侵蚀,在考场中我们只需要精读到这儿就可以了,因为后面的部分是本别细化地去讲植被消失和土地侵蚀的情况的,这些信息跟主旨重复了,没有必要去细读。

 

第二,如果主旨句比较笼统,没有提及分论点,这时除了主旨句以外,我们还要把各个分论点的信息读全。比如:

A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.TPO13


在这个段落中,主旨句只说了一系列的情况能够提高primary groups的可能性,但是没有具体地讲这些情况是什么,这种情况下,我们出来要精读主旨句,还需要找到这些conditions并精读。Conditions的精读也要注意,并不需要所有细节都读,我们只需要精读概括地描述conditions的句子,如上文红色字体部分所示。而其它细节部分的句子只要一笔带过即可。这样的阅读既省时间,又提高了阅读的准确度和效率!




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