托福阅读大杀器之托福主体段落结构三

发表于:2015-09-22 17:32 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


    上两次的文章中,Vivi老师介绍了例证式和总分式段落的结构特点。今天我们一起来学习另外一种托福段落结构: 对比结构.首先我们一起来看看下面这个段落:

The source of Roman obsession with unity and cohesion may well have lain in the pattern of Rome's early development. Whereas Greece had grown from scores of scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean seas lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest. Of course, the contrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is undeniable. The key to the Greek world lay in its high-powered ships; the key to Roman power lay in its marching legions. The Greeks were wedded to the sea; the Romans, to the land. The Greek was a sailor at heart; the Roman, a landsman.

    看完以后是不是觉得这种段落结构跟前面讲过的两种都不太一样呢?因为这个段落作者采用的是对比比较的写法, 即作者通过对比古希腊和古罗马发展模式来阐释解释为什么古罗马人如此痴迷于统一和团结。


对于这种比较对比型的段落我们主要看神马捏?其实我们只需要看两点就够啦:

第一,   比较对象是谁? 第二,比较的方面是啥?


以上文为例,很显然,对比的对象是ancient Greece and ancient Rome. 而对比的方面就比较多啦,我们怎么去寻找这些方面捏?那咱们就先来回想一下我们平时在写对比或比较时,我们会用那些signpost(标志词)呢?最常用的是while whereas, by contrast , yet, however, 这些词吧,当然还有一些如compare, like/alike, resembles, in comparison, likewise, similar, in the same way/manner, parallels, similarlydifference(大家别忘了,比较除了有比较不同之处,也会有比较相同之处的哦)。所以,我们可以去找含有上述这些标志词的句子,然后就可以找到他们对比的方面啦。

 

以上为为例,我们可以找到三处:

Whereas Greece had grown from scores of scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean seas lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest.Yet the essential difference is undeniable. The key to the Greek world lay in its high-powered ships; the key to Roman power lay in its marching legions.

从这些句子可以看出, 此段对古希腊和古罗马起源的方式,扩张的方式以及强大的关键因素三个方面进行了对比。弄清楚了对比的对象和对比的方面以后,这个段落的结构是不是很清晰了呢?就是一个主旨句加上三个对比的方面!


我们下面再来看一个栗子:

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Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans… After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers.

我们可以看到,上面这一段也是对比,但是它木有出现我们常见的标志词,而是以时间作为分界线,将1815年的生产形式作一个对比:之前是手工,之后是机器。所以这种段落也是对比比常见的段落结构啦。


在实际的阅读过程中,如果我们能够把对比的对象以及对比的方面都能弄清楚的话,那么整个段落的脉络就很清楚啦!麻麻也就再也不用担心我的排除题和推理题啦!


最后编辑于:2016-01-21 11:28
分类: 备考指导
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