词源典故5(赵铁夫讲单词教程附属资料节选)

赵铁夫讲堂 (赵铁夫) 初级粉丝
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发表于:2015-09-23 16:08 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Adam's Apple喉结

  亚当是圣经中人类的始祖,而苹果的历史比人类的历史还悠久。在世界各文明古国的民间故事和神话传说中,苹果都是受人喜爱的一种果实。英语中有个谚语:An apple a day keeps the doctor away.但据圣经故事上说,苹果也给人类带来了麻烦,男人的喉结就是因吃苹果引起的。

  《旧约。创世纪》第3章讲到人类的起源,传说上帝创造人类的始祖亚当和夏娃,在东方的伊甸(Eden)建立了一个园子给他们居住。伊甸园里生长着悦人眼目的各种树木,树上长着各种各样的果实。上帝吩咐亚当说:你可以随意吃园中的各种果子,只是不能吃那棵分别善恶树上的果实,吃了必定要死。这种禁果就是apple.后来,亚当的配偶夏娃听信蛇的诱惑,不顾神谕,吃了善恶树上的禁果,还把这果子给它丈夫吃。亚当因心怀恐惧,吃时仓促,有一片果肉哽在吼中,不上不下,留下个结块,就叫亚当的苹果两人吃了这果子就心明眼亮,能知善恶美丑。但是由于他们违背了上帝的告戒而被逐出伊甸园。从此,亚当就永远在脖子前端留下喉结”,作为偷吃禁果的罪证。上帝还惩罚亚当,“必汗流满面才能糊口

  不过也说一说是正当亚当吃的时候,上帝来了,所以亚当急忙吞下去,不料哽在喉咙间了。

  eg:Your Adam's apple isn't apparent.

  Adam's apple can be more clearly seen on men than women's throats.

 

《伊索寓言》

a dog in the manger占着茅坑不拉屎的人

  出自《伊索寓言》(Aesop's Fables,有一篇狗站马槽的故事,说的是一头狗躺在堆满稻草的马槽里,狗是不吃草的动物,而当马或牛一走进稻草时,这头狗却朝着马,牛狂哮,不准食草动物享用。

  因此,“狗站马槽就成了一个家喻户晓的成语而进入英语中,常用来比喻a person who prevents others from enjoying sth that is useless to himself a churlish fellow who will neither use a thing himself nor let others use it,讽刺那些占据说职位或某些物质却不做事的人。

  a dog in the manger是个名词性短语,常与系动词连用,充当表语(主语补足语)

  eg:He borrowed a lot of books from the library,but he didn't read a book.He was really a dog in the manger.

  There are some officials who are only the dogs in the manger.

  Smith was a dog in the manger over that roll of wireit was no use whatever to him,but he wouldn't let us have it.

  bell the cat自告奋勇去冒险;老虎头上拍苍蝇

  bell the cat系成语to hang the bell about the cat's neck的简略,愿意是给猫的脖子上挂铃。它来自《伊索寓言》(Aesop's Fables)中的《老鼠会议》(The Mice in Council

  这篇寓言讲的是:一群老鼠在鼠洞里举行会议,讨论如何对付凶狠的猫。白胡须老鼠提出:“我有个方法,在猫的脖子上挂一个铃。这样,猫一走动铃就响,我们就可以闻铃声而逃避了”,群鼠一致同意这个建议,欢呼:“That's a capital idea.We will bell the catNo more fear of the cat但是,谁去给猫挂铃铛呢?没有一只老鼠敢去,一个个都溜掉了。老鼠会议豪无结果,它们不安全的境况当然也无法改善。

  寓言所寄托的意思很明白:遇到困难的问题时候,既需要有出谋献策的人,更需要有挺身而出的实干家。

  bell the cat常用来比喻to do sth dangerous in order to save othersto step forwar bravely to face the dangerto take a risk for the good of others.

  eg:Everybody made suggestion,but no one actually offered to bell the cat.

  We didn't know who would put him this delicate question when my friend offered to bell the cat.

  cry wolf虚发警报;慌报险情;危言耸听(从小我们就听的狼来了的故事)

  cry wolf来自《伊索寓言》:《牧童和狼》 The Shepherdboy and the wolf

  有个牧童在离村子不远的山坡上放羊,有一次,他为了开心作乐,突然大喊:“HelpHelpThe wolf全村的人都闻声跑来援助他时,才知道这只是开玩笑。如此恶作剧搞了两三次。后来,狼真的来了,那个牧童再呼号求救时,谁也不理会他了。于是,狼把他的羊吃了。

这篇寓言的意义很清楚:爱说谎话的人,即或在他说真话时,也没人相信他。由此,人们用to cry wolf 来概括这篇寓言的基本情节及其教诫意义,用以比喻to give false alarmsto warn of danger where there is none之意。

  eg:Nobody will believe he is in trouble because he has cried wolf so many times.

  Is she really sick of is she just crying wolf

  The newspaper placards that had cried "wolf" so often,cried "wolf" now in vain.


本帖来源社刊


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