[学术文章导读]Lying can be addictive?丨撒谎成性不是危言耸听

TFNG (TFNG) 路人转粉
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发表于:2017-02-27 17:14 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

    说到雅思阅读,很多同学可能就会对那晦涩难懂的长篇大论心生恐惧,其实雅思阅读其中的一个侧重点在于测试考生是否能够有比较科学的阅读习惯与方法,而想要娴熟地对这些阅读方法进行运用的话,那么平时的阅读积累是必不可少的。


    因此,平时多看一些学术文章,对雅思阅读的提升是益处良多的,而且学术文章也不一定要那么严肃地去看,利用自己的脑洞,学术文章也可以很有趣。


    今天就给大家带来一篇学术文章的非严肃导读,希望大家能够渐渐领略到阅读的魅力。



    说到撒谎,最先映入你脑汁的应该就是匹诺曹阁下了,我们先来瞻仰下他的传记:


    当仁慈的木匠盖比特睡觉的时候,他梦见一位蓝色的仙女赋予他最心爱的木偶——匹诺曹生命。但是,匹诺曹想要成为真正的男孩,还必须通过勇气、忠心以及诚实的考验。于是,匹诺曹开始了他的冒险。


    在冒险中,他遇见了美腻的白雪公主,利用种族天赋英勇杀敌,并获取了白雪公主的芳心(误)。



    呃,不好意思跑错片场了,原本的故事是:

    在冒险中,他因贪玩而逃学、因贪心而受骗,还因此变成了一条驴子。最后,他掉进一只大鲸鱼的腹中,意外与盖比特相逢。经过这一次的历险,匹诺曹终于长大了,他变得诚实、勤劳、善良,成为了一个真正的好男孩 。


    而其中一撒谎鼻子就变长的设定实在是太经典了,而最新研究发现,也许匹诺曹的鼻子可能并不会恢复,只会越来越长,因为撒谎是会上瘾的




Little white lies(善意的谎言) have a tendency to snowball(滚雪球般增大). Now we’ve found out why – the more we lie, the more our brains seem to become desensitised(无感或不敏感) to the act of lying. Could this discovery help prevent dishonesty spiralling out of control(失控)?

文章节选自New Scientist,下同


也许你会说撒谎也是分场合的,有些更只是善意的小谎,然而撒谎越多我们的脑子就越习惯这种行为,那么是否有防止这种情况失控的方法呢?

并非精确翻译,下同


Sharot and her colleagues wondered if a person’s brain might get desensitised to lying, in the same way we get used to the horror of a violent image if we see it enough times. Most people feel guilty when they intentionally deceive(欺骗) someone else, but could this feeling ebb away(逐渐衰退) with practice?


我们对撒谎麻木就和我们习惯暴力场面的方式可能是一样的。大多数人对故意欺骗他人都会感到内疚,但是这种感觉是不是随着演技越来越好而衰退呢?


To find out, Sharot and her colleagues set up an experiment that encouraged volunteers to lie. In the task, each person was shown jars(罐) of pennies, full to varying degrees. While in a brain scanner, each person had to send their estimate to a partner in another room.


那么为了回答上面两个问题,研究人员就设计了一个实验,这个实验鼓励志愿者们去撒谎。实验中每位志愿者都拿到了一罐硬币,当然数量不一。每个志愿者必须把大致的数目传给身处另外一间屋子的同伴,这个过程中会有脑部扫描仪来进行监控。


The partner was only shown a blurry(模糊的) low-resolution(低分辨率) image of the jar, and so relied on the volunteer’s estimate. In some rounds, a correct answer would mean a financial reward for both the volunteer and their partner. But in others, the volunteer was told that a wrong answer from the partner would result in a higher reward for them, but a lower reward for their partner – and the more incorrect the answer, the greater the personal reward. In other rounds, incorrect answers benefited the partner, but not the volunteer.


而同伴只会看到一张低分辨率的照片,所以他们只能依靠志愿者的推测。在某几轮中,同伴正确的回答会为双方都带来金钱回报;但是在另外某几轮中,志愿者被告知同伴的错误回答还是会为双方都带来好处,只不过同伴的回答错得越离谱,志愿者的回报就越高;在其他的某几轮中,错误的回答更有利于同伴而非志愿者。


Sharot found that her volunteers seemed happy to lie if it meant that their partner would benefit. On each of these rounds, the volunteer lied to the same degree. But when it came to self-serving(谋私利的) lies, the volunteer’s dishonesty escalated(升级) over time – each lie was greater than the one before. For example, a person might start with a lie that earned them £1, but end up telling untruths worth £8.


有趣的来了,研究人员发现如果同伴会获利,那么这些志愿者就乐意去撒谎。这几轮中撒谎的程度都差不多。但是当撒谎可以为自己谋得利益的时候,志愿者就停不下来了,一个比一个谎离谱。比如某人一开始撒的谎可以赚1镑,最后能靠撒谎赚到8镑


"When you lie or cheat for your own benefit, it makes you feel bad,”says Sophie van der Zee at the Free University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.“But when you keep doing it, that feeling goes away, so you’re more likely to do it again.”


研究人员解释:其实呢,为自己牟利而撒谎,你也会不开心滴。但是呢,如果你坚持这么做,这种罪恶感就没啦,所以你就越来越容易撒谎。


Frequent liars are also likely to be better at lying, and harder to catch out...


看来天下的技能都是共通的,如果你经常撒谎,那你的技术就会越来越好...


有可能最后变得和《大话王》中金·凯瑞(Jim Carrey)饰演的lawyer/liar弗莱切一样,练就一身颠倒是非、扭转黑白的本领。不过他最后还是从良了,毕竟需要happy ending~




其实文章最后还介绍了两个防止撒谎的方法,不过TF感觉那两个方法不痛不痒的,还不如看看电影来得有趣又有效,所以就不放上来了。


最后,虽然有时候谎言(不论善意恶意)是难免的,但是还是得小心不知不觉中加冕为了——长鼻王。


Finale~


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