【高中语法系列】主谓一致 繁复中也可以简单!

Jane19881221 (大珏班班) 探花
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发表于:2017-02-28 17:38 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

主谓一致是我们在高一学的语法内容,对于高二、高三的同学来说也同样重要哦!在英语中,谓语受主语支配,必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,即主谓一致。

一般来说,主谓一致要遵循三个原则:

一.语法一致原则

即在语法形式上取得一致,谓语动词的单复数形式由主语的单复数形式决定。

1.单数名词、不可数名词、单个动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及句子作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

To see is to believe.

眼见为实。

Reading aloud is very important in learning English.

学习英语时大声朗读非常重要。

When they could finish the task is not known yet.

他们何时能完成任务还未知。

Whoever wants to join in the competition is asked to sign his/her name here.

要参加比赛的人请在这里签名。

注意:what引导的主语从句充当主语时,有时要以what所指代的词的意义来决定谓语动词的数。

What he said is true.

他所说的是真的。

What we need are more volunteers.

我们所需要的是更多的志愿者。

2.由连接词and或both … and连接的名词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及句子作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。

What he said and what he did have greatly encouraged the other students.

他说的话及行为极大地鼓舞了其他学生。

Both his father and his mother are advanced workers.

他的爸爸和妈妈都是先进工作者。

注意:有时,一些用and连接的主语表达的却是单数的概念,这时谓语动词也应用单数形式。

(1)用and连接的名词表示同一人、同一物或同一概念作主语时

Bread and butter is nutritious for patients.

黄油面包对病人很有营养。

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

早睡早起使人健康、富有和聪明。

The secretary and manager was speaking at the meeting.

那位书记兼经理在会上讲话。

(2)“each/every/no/ many a  + 单数名词+ and + each/every/no/many a  + 单数名词”作主语时Every hour and every minute is precious.

每一小时,每一分钟,都很宝贵。

No man and no woman is not allowed to enter the hall.

每个人都不允许进入大厅。

3.“名词+as well as, rather than, like, but, expect, besides, with, together with, along with, including, in addition to+ 名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词同第一个名词的数保持一致。

Tom as well as two of his friends was invited to the party.

汤姆以及他的两个朋友一起被邀请参加宴会了。

Nobody but one teacher and three students was in the lab.

实验室只有一个老师和三个学生。

4.“more than one 或many a + 单数名词”作主语时,尽管其意义为复数,但谓语动词还是用单数形式。

More than one student is against the decision.

不止一个学生反对这个决定。

Many a page in this book is missing.

这本书缺了许多页。

5.不定代词either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every与thing, body, one构成的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Nothing in the world moves faster than light.

世上没有什么东西比光传播得更快。

Each one of us has his own duty.

我们每个人都有自己的职责。

注意:若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数形式;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数形式或复数形式都可以。

None of the money has been spent on repairs.

这笔钱没有花费在维修方面。

None of the passengers were/was aware of the danger.

乘客中没有一个意识到危险的存在。

6.由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。

The majority of doctors believe smoking is harmful to health.

大多数医生都认为吸烟有害健康。

The majority of the damage is easy to repair.

这次的损害大部分都容易补救。

The rest of the books were returned to the library.

其余的书都归还给图书馆了。

The rest of the money was given to the villagers.

其余的钱都给了村民。

7.“a large amount of + 不可数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;“large amounts of +不可数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

A large amount of damage was done in a short time.

在短时间内就造成了巨大的损失。

8.在定语从句中,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

I, who am your teacher, will do my best to help you.

我是你的老师,我会尽全力帮助你的。

Those who have finished the work can go home first.

那些已完成工作的人可以先回家。

注意:“one of + 复数名词+who/which/that” 引导的定语从句中,若关系代词在定语从句中充当主语,谓语动词常用复数形式。若one 前有the (only/very / right ) 修饰时,从句中的谓语动词用单数形式。

He was one of the students who were given a prize.

他是那些获奖的学生之一。

I was the only one in my office who was invited.

我是办公室里唯一受到邀请的人。

9.由两部分组成的表示衣物或工具的名词作主语时,如:glasses,spectacles,shoes,boots, trousers/pants,compasses,chopsticks,scissors,socks等,谓语动词通常用复数,但这类词如用a pair of修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

My glasses were broken while playing football yesterday.

昨天踢足球时我的眼镜被打碎了。

A pair of shoes is lying under the bed.

床底下有一双鞋。

Here are some new pairs of shoes.

这里有几双新鞋。

10.由“kind/form/type/sort/species /series +of + 名词” 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式取决于这些词的单复数而不是它们后面所跟的名词。

All kinds of difficulties have to be overcome .

必须克服各种各样的困难。

This kind/sort of questions is very difficult.

这种问题很难。

(但Questions of this kind / sort are very difficult.谓语动词要用复数形式。)

二.意义一致原则

即谓语动词的单复数形式由主语的意义而不是形式所决定。当主语形式为单数,但意义为复数时,谓语动词要用复数形式;但主语形式为复数,而意义却为单数时,谓语动词用单数形式。

1.有些名词如people, cattle,police,trousers等没有单数形式,作主语时,谓语动词只能用复数。

The police were sent to the spot to keep order immediately.

警察立即被派往现场维持秩序。

Cattle were allowed to graze in this area.

允许牲畜在这个地区吃草。

2.英语中一些单复数同形的名词作主语时,应根据其表达的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式

这类名词常见的有sheep,deer,fish,means, species,Chinese,Japanese,series等。

Every possible means has been used to prevent the air pollution.

为了防止大气污染,每一种方法都试过了。

All possible means have been tried to keep animals and plants from becoming endangered.

为了使动植物的生命不受到威胁,所有的方法都试过了。

3.有些集合名词,如public,family, enemy, audience,government,group,committee,team,media,staff,crew等作主语时, 谓语动词的数要根据其包含的意义而定。

如果该名词表示一个整体,其谓语动词用单数形式;但如果这些集体名词表示集体中的若干个体时,谓语动词用复数形式。

A team which is full of enthusiasm is more likely to win.

情绪高昂的球队比较可能获胜。

The team are practicing hard on the playground.

队员们正在操场刻苦地训练。

The government has taken possible action.

政府已经采取了可能的措施。

The government are discussing the proposal.

政府正在讨论这项提案。

4.“the + 形容词或过去分词”表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式;如 “the + 形容词”指一个人或表示一种抽象概念或品质时,谓语动词用单数形式。

The wounded were saved by the villagers at last.

最后,伤员们被村民们救起。

The wounded in the accident was a policeman.

这次事故的受伤者是一名警察。

The beautiful is not always useful.

好看的并不总是有用的。

5.有些以s结尾表示学科名称的词,如physics, mathematics, economics, politics等,以及用作书名、地名、国名、地区名的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Politics is a complicated subject.

政治是一门复杂的学科。

The New York Times is one of the most influential newspapers in the world.

《纽约时报》是世界上最具影响力的报纸之一。

6.表示距离、长度、价值、金额、重量等的复数名词作主语时,如作为一个整体来看待的话,谓语动词通常用单数。

Twenty kilometers is a quite long distance.

二十公里是一段相当长的距离。

Fifty dollars was a large sum for me at that time.

那时五十美金对我来说是一大笔钱。

7.“a number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;“the number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

A large number of people have applied for the job.

很多人申请了这项工作。

The number of people learning English inChinais increasing rapidly at present.

目前中国学习英语的人数正在增加。

8.such作主语时要根据其所指的内容决定谓语动词的单复数形式。

Such is our plan.

这就是我们的计划。

Such are his words.

这些就是他所说的话。

三.就近一致原则

即谓语动词的人称和数须与邻近的主语保持一致。

1.在there be 结构、here 以及表示地点的介词词组位于句首引起的倒装句中,谓语动词的人称和数应与最近的一个主语保持一致。

There are two chairs and a desk in the office.

办公室中有两把椅子和一张桌子。

Here are my replies to your questions.

这些是我对你的问题的回答。

2.当either…or…;neither…nor…;not only…but also…;not…but…;or;nor等并列连词连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数应与邻近的主语保持一致。

Either he or you are to blame for it.

不是他就是你必须为此事负责。

Not you but I am responsible for the delay.

不是你而应是我应对这次的延误负责。

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